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Psycology » Spurs » Philosophy » Slavophilism and Westernism as becoming Russian identity

Svoeobr. direction of P fil views were Slavophiles. Representatives Koshelev, Samarin, Dahl, Tyutchev, AS Hamsters, IV Kireyevsky Aksakov.
Hamsters became the ancestor of the Slavophiles AS The paper "On the old and new" (became the program). Outlined Social-political and historical views of Phil-Slavophiles that intertwined with his doctrine of the church.
The focus of the Slavophiles (sf.) are the fate of P and its role in the world of history. process. In the identity of the historical past they saw the pledge of universal vocation R., moreover, that in their opinion, zap. Culture has already completed the circle of development and to decline that exp. generated in its sense of hope deceived and desolate emptiness. Russia remained the main thing - Orthodoxy and the community. Revival forms of patriarchy, a return to orthodox ideals of Holy Russia - is the concept of social-ist has providential and religious - a mystical character.
Slavophile. developed based on the doctrine of the religious ideas of people and society. Hamsters - the doctrine of the hierarchical structure of the soul and its "central forces". Kireyevsky - "internal focus of the spirit." Achieving integrity of people and the associated update commonly life they saw in the idea of ​​community spirit based on - the church. Under the church Hamsters understood primarily spiritual connection conciliar uniting many believers in the love of truth. Genuine ideal church life by H. only Orthodoxy, because here a harmonious blend of unity and freedom (in the app. catholicity violated the principle of Europe: in Catholicism - in the name of unity in Protestantism - in the name of freedom) in the western. Europe, this has led to rationalism, hostile to the spirit of the church. H. rejects rationalism and justifies the need for a solid knowledge (zhivoznaniya), which also acts as a source or a combination of the catholicity of thinking associated with love.
Hist progress associated with the search for the "spirit of sense." Essence of the world might be recognize only the synthesis of all spiritual functions people, the so-called "Intelligent Zryachestyu" or "zhivoznaniem", the beginning of which the original - religion. When this tragedy people living in that being called to freedom in the church, they are moving away from freedom in the natural or social need, becoming its slaves.

Westerners materialistic Belinsky (1811-1848). Herzen (1812-1870), Ogarev NGChernyshevsky (1828-1889), N.A.Dobrolyubov (1836-1861), D.I.Pisarev (1840-1868). They were not only Philosophy theorists, but ideologues p. roar of democracy. P f passed it instructive school classes and phyla Fr education. After a deep drag Hegelianism p fil turned in ma-sided mat (not without the help Feerb), but trying to keep the dialectical. They justified the principle of the unity of consciousness and being, the primacy of matter in relation to consciousness, the idea that consciousness has no communication of the whole, but only highly organized matter - the brain, criticized the church.
Herzen. Founder of populism. Unity of being and thinking, nature essence is independent of man, and the laws of thought is a reflection of the laws of existence. Tried to find a method of knowledge yavl. unity of experience and speculation. In fil history - a matter of public law, which is a combination of a natural course of history (the unconscious life of the people) and the conscious activity of individuals, man is the crown of creation, human consciousness is not nature, and understanding about yourself.
Value of the person in a reasonable and moral act. Personality created environment and events, and recent bear its imprint.
Disappointed in the western social upheaval, the idea of ​​Russian peasant socialism. The rural community is a rudiment of socialism and the Russian question is the question of serfdom. Nature and human history forever and are constantly changing, they are over, Prel, movement, and Motion occurs through struggle protivopol two trends: the formation and destruction. Development goes through contradictions, the struggle of the new with the old, obsolete emerging denial.
Ogarev. Materialist and atheist. Criticism of the church as a slavish fear, the development of communal socialism, recognition of the important role of economic factors in the historical process.
Belinsky. Ideas need to progress more progressive bourgeois order, so the abolition of patriarchs in Russia. Welcoming social way to the Society, was skeptical of the reformist project of Western socialists, said that in the modern era is not without blood, but a people's revolution in Russia will not happen soon. At the same time appealed to the ideals of primitive Christianity. In art - realism and bring it closer to the people.
Chernyshevsky (his school - Dob, Pisarev, Shelgunov). In nature, in Chernyshevsky, nothing to look for ideas: it is only matter of different design with heterogeneous qualities, in the district of the collisions and the cat begins the life of nature. Indestructibility of matter and its relationship to space and time. The man - a natural being, the body is one, and consciousness is a manifestation of material substance. Anthropological principle. Phil W monistic and directed against dualism. The idea of ​​class struggle and the inevitability of social revolutions, utopian socialism. New revolutionary morality - a commitment to the ideals of the roar, fight. The real beauty of reality. Criteria of beauty socio-culturally conditioned.

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