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Psycology » Spurs » Philosophy » Formation of the main problems of Russian philosophy PY Chaadaeva

Work: "Philosophical Letters", "Apology of a Madman."
Outstanding Russian philosopher and social thinker was PY Chaadaev (1794-1856).
Briefly: expressed bitter resentment of excommunication from the Russian "global education of the human race", national complacency and spiritual stagnation, preventing the realization and execution ordained over the historic mission. Participated in the struggle against Westerners Slavophiles represented worldview progressively minded Russian nobility. Later transferred to the position of Catholicism. Criticism of autocracy, orthodoxy and serfdom. In general, the objective idealist Ch.
His general philosophical concept - dualistic. The physical world is built of atoms and molecules, ie material elements, all of which formed the body. Bodies exist in space, which is the objective form of the outside world, and in a time that is subjective. Motion and interaction seen them in the spirit of mechanism, which, however, was limited to the world of physical phenomena. Human consciousness is not subject to the mechanistic laws of nature, and is the result of divine creation. Cognition on Chaadayev also dualistic: the life sciences are rational and empirical methods, and in the spiritual world, the objects which have the freedom to act revelation.
Man is the objective unity of two worlds - the physical and spiritual, as being free, which in its historical existence is subject to the dialectic of freedom and necessity. The task of philosophy is to study man as a spiritual being. The most general laws of the world a person can not be understood without the influx from above, hence a large role in the nature of the divine law in the spirit of objective idealism.
Ideas of collectivism - the human collectivity defines individuality and collective intelligence - subjective. Collective human essence is what it differs from the animal.
On the understanding of the relation of necessity and freedom is largely built and the concept of philosophical history W, associated primarily with concern for the fate of Russia. Here his views evolved. In the initial period, he considered it necessary to total unity of the human race (in relation to Russia - Russian union with other nations). Then W views with respect to Russia's destiny changed. He began to examine the isolation of Russia from the world historical process as an advantage that will quickly master the achievements of Western civilization, escaped with inherent defects. He said that Russia lagged behind the West, then moved to the opinion of the special role of Russia, which still finds its national idea. In the development of society play a special role of religious and moral principles, to attack the kingdom of God is necessary to the religious education of mankind. When this is necessary to modernize the faith, and in the community will prevail equality, fraternity and liberty. Do not sympathize with socialism, predicted his victory due to the fact that the rest worse.
The central problem - the problem of the history of philosophy, historical sense. Charles claimed that the nature of the world historical process is not determined by objective natural laws and the activities of historical figures, Providence, determining reasonable human activities. Action Providence fundamentally inaccessible to reason. Charles believed that Christianity really is Catholicism adoption Russian Orthodoxy her trouble. While Charles wrote that Russia has a purpose in the future, if the spirit of Orthodoxy connect with the activities of Catholicism. Ch Denied individualism and freedom of man: man must sacrifice freedom for property and order.


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