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Psycology » Spurs » Philosophy » Cultural and historical background of the formation and development of Russian philosophy. Its characteristics

To 10. (Adoption of Christianity) the dominant position occupied pagan worldview that is closely connected with the deification of the forces of nature. In the 10-17 centuries. rf developed under feudalism and the rule of the Christian religion. An important factor in the formation of a rational function after the adoption of Christianity was the communication with the spiritual and philosophical culture of antiquity and Byzantium ("source of knowledge" John Damascene, "Six Days" John Bulgarian, etc.). At the same time and in the most pagan culture of Russia, folklore, matured views on the nature of philosophical background of consciousness. Important source of knowledge of medieval social thought and national consciousness yavl. poem "Lay" (12v.). In the legislative vault "Russian Truth" (11-12 cc.) Reflected philosophical, legal and political problems in the conditions of feudalism. Rf great interest to the different ethical issues moralistic, practical ethics ("Instruction of Vladimir Monomakh" (12th c.), etc.). Ideas philosophical-historical nature contained in the chronicles. "The Tale of Bygone Years" interpreted the origin of the state in Russia, and its place among other countries. Medieval understanding of the history of different socio-political orientation, concern for strengthening Russian. state.
In the 15-16 centuries. rise in Russian. medieval culture has caused increased interest in ancient Greek and Byzantine scholarship, a complication of philosophical thought, criticism vices feud. Society (Maxim the Greek - 16.). 17. raised the development of philosophical knowledge to the next level: opened new schools, where he taught systematic philosophy courses. There has been a convergence of philosophy and natural science, which contributed to further folding steel. types of philosophical thinking characteristic of European philosophy of modern times.

As an independent spiritual phenomenon of the Russian FA can speak with an efficiency of 18 to n.19. Broadly rf this period yavl. reaction product of original ideas of Russian Orthodoxy and French views. f-graphs of the Enlightenment. In the 19th century. rf formed with a noticeable influence of Schelling and Hegel (Velansky Davydov) and later positivism and mat-ZMA (Kireyevsky Belinsky, Herzen, Bakunin). Last result in the genesis of his views became an ideologist Russian anachronism. Among the followers of mat-PCA and positivism NGChernyshevsky, P. Lavrov M.M.Filippov. The first attempt to link Marxism with rf was made VG Plekhanov and Lenin later developed. In late 19th century. begins to form Russian mystical-religious F. First, was reflected in the works of LN Tolstoy, Fyodor Dostoevsky. The latter gave. philosophical and psychological analysis of the so-called borderline situations. It is assumed that he yavl. forerunner of existentialism. First known outside Russia Russian Orthodox representatives F. - Soloviev and Florensky. Solovyov emerged as ph-ph under the influence of Kant and came thus to justify mystical Christianity. Thanks to these f-femme detailed development received such ethical-religioanye concepts as "collegiality", "Sophian," "unity" and "common cause." Close to the views of them stood PY Chaadaev. Religious ph-ph Lev Shestov was close to ind-SCM. Further development of rf associated with three main directions: psychological (reflexology spondylitis and Pavlova), theosophical-mystical, in the face of Russian cosmism E. Blovatskoy and ethical teachings NK Roerich to-Roe was in the most complete form set out in his book "Living Ethics." Interdisciplinary research at the intersection of FM and natural science methodology implemented VI Vernadsky. He developed the concept of the noosphere, introduced into science Teilhard de Chardin.


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