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Psycology » Spurs » Philosophy » The basic ideas of Schelling's philosophy. Schelling the nature and essence of human freedom

Work: "The system of transcendental idealism"
Sh makes the starting point of his teaching identity of opposites of subject and object. Fichte for criticizing what he regarded nature as bare material for the subject, S. focuses on the problems of natural philosophy. Last problem he sees is to reveal the nature of the successive stages of development from lower to higher forms. Nature thus interpreted as a manifestation of the unconscious life of the mind, which, as it passes through a series of stages from the lower - inorganic nature - to the highest, organic and finds its fulfillment in the emergence of consciousness. The problem of the relation of conscious and unconscious forms of life of the mind, has delivered Fichte, acquires from Sh paramount. S. attempts to detect parallelism existing between the different levels of development of nature (mechanistic, chemical, biological laws), on the one hand, and the stages of development of human consciousness on the other.
Sh undertakes construction dialectical pattern of development of natural processes and forms. Natural body refers to them as the product of the interaction of opposing forces. Every phenomenon of nature Sh sees product struggle of opposing forces, this struggle is the structure of all living things.
Drawing on new discoveries in physics, chemistry, biology Sh criticized the mechanistic natural science, seeking to show that the whole of nature as a whole can be explained by the principle of expediency, the underlying life.
In the teachings of Sh overcome the opposition of the natural world as the phenomenal world and freedom as intelligible. Both spheres are treated as developing from a single substance, which is the absolute identity of subject and object, point "indifference" of the two. Philosophy of nature and philosophy of identity S. - an objective idealism, whose main task was to show how the first elements of the single, which is neither subject nor object, the diversity of the universe is born. W is considered as the emergence of a "creative act", which is being unknowable to the mind is the subject of a special kind of irrational cognition - intellectual intuition, which is the unity of conscious and unconscious activity. Since this kind of intuition inherent in only a few gifted natures insofar philosophy, like art, is the lot of geniuses. With tons of Sh art, not a science, as believed before, there organon philosophy.
Sh idea of ​​freedom is linked to phenomena of good and evil. That will is free, which is equally possible for both the person faces a choice. This man - a social being in it conquered evil with good.
Schelling (1775-1854): Tyubengemskom studied at the Theological Institute, where he studied at the same time Hegel (these theological foundation played an important role in their formation).
His turn from naturofilosofii religion played a fateful joke. He was initially a follower of Fichte, but then began to develop his piano and, as came to the conclusion that nature has its own development. What prompted him to do so? Primarily those discoveries to the e-were made in his time (electric, galvanic electricity). Several of its provisions: in nature can not be conceived without unity not division, not unity without ambivalence. One constantly follows from another. Identity in duality and duality in the identity expresses the power of the law of nature, but it is contradictory in this conflict is the cause of all its activities, otherwise there is no integrity and activity. Seling, believed that because the world is one that all its processes stem from one source that pervades everything becoming, one pulsation of the same dialectical rhythms of movement and identity to the contrary from her a new identity, or in other words from thesis to antithesis and thence to synthesis.
Inanimate nature by Sheleng is like a petrified life, it is as if the unconscious mind to e-opens in wildlife and fully disclosed in the "I". It occurs in "absolute" and is contained in the form of undiagnosed and the question arises how it all comes to disclosure. He says that this transition can be explained only by an irrational (not rational) way. He was interested in the problem of evil, the problem of freedom and he found no objective explanation, reason for all of this in the real foundation of the world, therefore had to move to the position of religious f-graphy. Which he did. It has also affected the Russian ph-ph (Chaadaev etc.).


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