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Psycology » Spurs » Philosophy » Kant's philosophy and its basic ideas. Ethical concept of Kant

Work: "Critique of Pure Reason," "Critique of Practical Reason," "Critique of Judgment."
In the work of K. isolated steps: 1) subcritical (early), 2) critical (mature).
At the first stage K. studied science, natural science (Kant-Laplace hypothesis about the natural origin of the solar system, the hypothesis about the influence of the tides on the speed of the Earth around its axis). In the second stage K. studied philosophy and built a system that consistently meets the following questions: 1. What can I know? 2. What should I do? (Ethics) 3. To which I dare to hope? (Philosophy of religion) 4. What is man, and how it should be, to be a man? 5. Doctrine of expediency and beauty (aesthetics). 6. Theory of law, the state, society (socio-political doctrine).
The theory of knowledge is presented in the work of K. "Critique of Pure Reason" (K. criticism is the study of possibilities and the limits of knowledge, pure reason - theoretical or scientific study). Dealt acts cognitive activity of the subject (person). Empiricism and rationalism K. perceived as extreme. He came to the conclusion that in the present scientific knowledge as experimental (empirical) and a priori knowledge. In this case only a priori forms of cognition, the content is entirely sold in the experiment. K. singled out a priori forms of sensory perception and a priori forms of intellectual activity. All a priori forms K. broke into four groups of three each (including cause and effect, necessity and accident). Cognition by K. is a synthesis of the material and sensual priori forms that reflect the laws of our consciousness. Without sensory impressions thing can not be given to us, and a priori forms can only be meaningless concepts. And without a priori forms we can not understand what we perceive. Synthesis occurs by means of the imagination. Thus, by K. in cognition people actively creates an object of knowledge on the basis of the laws of his own consciousness, ie learns not reality itself, and its model constructed as a result of the activity of consciousness.
The problem of "things in themselves." K. According to our consciousness has an objective source, ie it arises as a result of the impact on our senses of the objective world, ie objects existing independently of us, ie "Things in themselves." Kant admitted that outside our sensations there is an objective reality and it generates a feeling we have. However, K. believed that things in themselves fundamentally knowable (idealism). K. criticized for last thesis materialists and idealists criticized for the existence of things in themselves (Hume). By K. things in themselves, acting on our senses, our feelings are, in cognitive images, ie We generate a phenomenon phenomena. And what we know ourselves, it is phenomena phenomenon and not the things themselves. Do things in themselves are not available directly to us. K. concludes that scientific knowledge can not fully understand the world (agnosticism).
The problem of the antinomy of reason. Mind - intellectual ability, which is the sphere of philosophy. With the help of reason a person can come to broad generalizations, formulate ideas, guide knowledge. Because of this ability to reason goes beyond possible experience (for example the idea of ​​the world as a whole, the idea of ​​the soul, the idea of ​​God) and falls into contradiction with itself, ie beyond its competence, encroaches on that of which scientific knowledge is impossible. Antinomy: 1. World is finite - infinite in space and time. 2. The world is complex consists of a simple - nothing in the world to do, all that is complicated (dividend). 3. In the world there is freedom - freedom in the world is not, because all conditioned by the laws of nature.
Positivism believes that this pseudo-problem and should not talk about it. But K. concluded that these problems must exist as objects of faith, the postulates of empirical reason. Ie Science is not omnipotent, there are objects that are not theoretical reason, ie need to desist from such practices (the dialectic of reason).
Kantian ethics. Sphere of morality - is the sphere of practical reason, which is related to human behavior and relationships between them. K. thought, knowledge is not an end in themselves have value if they help a person to become a better person to stay. K. felt that since there is a moral life, so there must be freedom. While its activity in foreign man is not free because of the laws of nature and society. But man, as a thinking being endowed with reason, can be determined internally in their behavior based on reason, he choose the target and means of their activities. Here freedom is possible, as internal self-determination rights. Absolute freedom does not exist. Genuine freedom is relative and is a self-limiting moral rights. The main idea is the idea of ​​ethics K. autonomy morality (samozakonnost). In this truly moral action must be motivated by internal moral law ("categorical imperative") and above all a sense of duty.

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