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Psycology » Spurs » Philosophy » Philosophical ideas of Voltaire and Rousseau

Voltaire (1694 - 1778) played a major role in that educational movement developed, strengthened and gained many supporters. As the pre-revolutionary bourgeois ideologue, he opened the door of her union with the other layers of the "third estate", but his noble coat and affection to the circles of the enlightened nobility led many features compromise in his outlook. Enemy of despotism and violence, distrustful of bourgeois oligarchy.
Voltaire philosophies developed in the spirit of "deism mind." Within these views, he sketched the idea of ​​God as a "philosopher on the throne of heaven," the legislator and the rules of morality and the nature of the judge over the people. God commanded once, and "the universe obeys the time." However, the function of punishment and reward went beyond the "classical" deistic views, but it was central to the teachings of Voltaire, because he denied any use of rituals and prayers. The main thing was that Voltaire opposed his teachings of Christianity with his tales of the fall and salvation and moral doctrines castigated all existing "world" religions. At the same time using social arguments he rejected atheism, believing that religion, even in the most abstract, deistic its form, is designed to be a dam for the senses raging "mob." However, in the 60s already Voltaire wrote only about the "probability" of deism, but against atheism remained under the previous conviction.
Voltaire says that atheism is "the biggest misconception of mind" does not realize that the universe seems to require a "watchmaker". Voltaire tried to prove the falsity of atheism in the first chapter of his "Principles of Philosophy of Newton" (1738) and other works, but it is characteristic that in the article "Atheism" he pays attention to the social causes of this phenomenon: their cruel tyrants rule unwittingly make oppressed lose all faith in God and divine providence.
In the history of the philosophy of the eighteenth century. Voltaire won a place as a propagandist sensationalism of Locke and the French Enlightenment as a thinker who sharply formulated and posed a number of problems, although they have not decided. In dilemmas as they were nominated the following three main problems: 1) Is there evil in the world and if so, what is its source? 2) The material or spiritual power inherent in the movement, life and consciousness? 3) Does it or does not have exceptions in their action fatalism?
The first of these three problems acquired the character of paradoxes for Voltaire because he was from the beginning on the way to resolve it raised an obstacle in the form of concept wise and just deity, from which it is impossible to expect evil. Voltaire first in thinking about this was influenced by the optimism of Leibniz and Shaftesbury. In the story of Voltaire "Zadig, or the fate of" the dispute still remains unresolved, and Voltaire himself was not very confident in the assumption that the Present evil sprouts coming good.
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), his passionate desire to change the social order, the struggle for scientific thinking, he was instrumental in the approximation of the revolution in France. Believing in the existence of God and the immortality of the soul recognition, Rousseau argued that matter and spirit are two eternally existing beginning. In matters of epistemology he stuck sensationalism, although he was a supporter of innate moral ideas. Science and art have not brought good man, just grief: the development of arts and sciences contributes to the deterioration of morals. Education - the development of the natural personality, but not the mind. In man, the main sense of the soul. In religion, too, the main feeling is necessary to replace traditional religion accessible to all "religion of the senses."
The leading idea of ​​Rousseau - the problem of social inequality and overcoming it. Private property is the cause of social inequality and the emergence of the state. Social inequality causes degradation of public morals. Rousseau distinguished between two types of inequality: the physical, derived from the difference in age, health, etc., and political, consisting in different privileges, which some people use to the detriment of others. The main source of social ills he saw in social inequality. Of wealth arise idleness and luxury, which leads to the corruption of morals. Before all people were equal, no one is depending on the other. Then people do not have private property and were free and equal. The property was the basis of civil society, and with it the cause of inequality.
Dramatic consequences of private property Rousseau believed people opposed interests, competition, desire for enrichment. The emergence of property rights Rousseau believed the first step inequality. The second stage, the agreement on the formation of the state based on this private property. Which led to even more inequality. And the third stage, the transition from the legal power to despotic based on arbitrariness.
The main work of Rousseau, "The Social Contract" begins with the words: "Man is born free, and yet he is in chains everywhere." The main task of the social contract is to find a form of association which would protect and safeguard the general power persons and property of each member, but in the meantime everyone would have remained free. Rousseau indignantly pointed out the uneven distribution of wealth. While struggling with a large private property, he stood for a private property based on their own labor. Rousseau's doctrine of the social contract is the justification of his doctrine of democracy: state power should prenadlezhat people. Social inequality should be replaced by a new state of equality. System based on inequality and violence, violence will die by it.

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