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Psycology » Spurs » Philosophy » Problems of the human personality and human freedom in Renaissance humanism

Revival - a philosopher. and sociologist. exercises in the epoch of the early bourgeois Society Islands (mainly in Italy) 14-17th cc. Official philosophy in this era remained scholasticism, but the emergence of the culture of humanism, significant achievements in the field of natural science led to the philosophy that no longer play the role of servant of theology and its development prospect acquired antiskholasticheskuyu orientation. Geographical successes in medicine, scientific anatomy of symbols in mathematics. broken the dominance of the church. First Art and Italy and then everywhere. Features 1) denial of the book of wisdom and of scholasticism logomachy and study of nature itself, and 2) the materialists of antiquity - Democritus, Epicurus, and 3) a close relationship with the natural sciences, and 4) the study of human problems.
Essence ideological coup revival was going from theocentric to anthropocentric understanding of the world (humanistic anthropocentrism). Contempt for earthly man essentially replaced recognition of his creative abilities and intelligence and the pursuit of earthly happiness. The essence of humanism in the revolutionary ideas of the earthly destiny of man, in bringing to life of human activity, in a statement of faith in man himself. Ancestor of Italian humanism was Petrarch. According to Petrarch person should be considered as a particular personality with its earthly qualities and virtues, thus it sets the first impulse of Western European individualism.
To prevent the emergence of humanism Pope Innocent III issued a decree "on the insignificance of man." In response, a number of his works humanists responded "about the dignity and greatness of man." Greatest resonance caused by the work of Giovanni Pico de la Mirandola, which became a manifesto of the entire Italian humanism. It shows that the person is the center of the world, and thanks to the reason he knows this world, and what is its purpose. Due to its location (center of world) man is mortal and not immortal, not the earth and not in heaven, and combines the features of all things. The main advantage of man - his free will by which he defines his place in the world. He is the Creator himself, and by his own will or may fall to the animal state, or rise to a state of holiness. Man shapes himself in that manner, which he himself prefers.
Another major humanist - Lorenzo Valla - in his work "the true and false good" showed that the purpose of man on earth and in heaven is one - to get pleasure. Earthly pleasure - not a denial, but a foretaste of the heavenly pleasure, the latter did not have the pleasure for earthly suffering, and continued enjoyment of the earth. Desire for pleasure inherent in human nature, and therefore the suppression of natural inclinations is not good, it is a crime against nature. A true delight - it is not limitless sensual selfishness and self-interest properly understood. It correctly understanding their favor, man acts virtuously. Relations between people should be built on the basis of these principles, ie people for each other should be a source of pleasure. Hence the basis of human relationships to be found in love. In the late 15th early. 16th-century ideas of humanism became widespread in other countries Zap. Europe. The major representatives: Erasmus, Michel and Pierre Charron Montel.


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