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Natural philosophy - the philosophy of nature.
Revival - a philosopher. and sociologist. exercises in the epoch of the early bourgeois Society Islands (mainly in Italy) 14-17th cc. Official philosophy in this era remained scholasticism, but the emergence of the culture of humanism, significant achievements in the field of natural science led to the philosophy that no longer play the role of servant of theology and its development prospect acquired antiskholasticheskuyu orientation. Geographical successes in medicine, scientific anatomy of symbols in mathematics. broken the dominance of the church. First Art and Italy and then everywhere. Features 1) denial of the book of wisdom and of scholasticism logomachy and study of nature itself, and 2) the materialists of antiquity - Democritus, Epicurus, and 3) a close relationship with the natural sciences, and 4) the study of human problems.

The major elements of Cusa and H. D. Bruno. Both shared the concept of pantheism. According to Cusa one God, infinite and unknowable. This is the absolute maximum that is not divorced from nature, and it is an expression of unity.
According to Bruno God is identical with nature and God's infinity is infinity of nature, and the latter is not yavl. purely speculative notion, as proved on the basis of physics and astronomy. Naturalist: spiritualization of nature, endowing it with divine properties, the dissolution of God in nature (Atman, infinite intelligence). There is no god over the world, and the matter is God, living and active principle. Spontaneous dialectic variability of land. Man is part of nature, his love for and knowledge of the infinite power of the mind elevates him above the world.
Nature, according to Cusa, a unity of opposites, the actual infinity of life and limb sensual things. This unity is expressed in the concept of potential infinity. God rassm. How to Fold the universe. On the other hand, the sensual world - God is deployed. Dissolution of nature in God. God is above the opposites that gives nature a limited mind. In the same God all opposites - the absolute min and absolute max, single and multiple, etc. Despite the mystical and idealistic focus: infinity problem, the methodology of mathematical concepts for understanding nature, a number of dialectical ideas - the unity and struggle of opposites. etc.
The greatest role in the philosophy of the Renaissance concept of natural philosophy played (Bruno Cordano, Paracelsus), established the crash scholastic methods comprehension of nature. The most important results of this research direction in natural philosophy were:
1) experimental methods - mathematical study of nature, according to Galileo, all phenomena can be reduced to a quantitative relation. To bring the truth in two ways: the operative (analytical, spread phenomenon in the elements) and kompozitivny (synthetic, understanding phenomena in integrity). Plus experiment scientific methodology. It introduces quantitative analysis, experimental and abstract inductive-deductive method of investigation of nature.
2) deterministic interpretation of reality, the opposite theological interpretation, found fundamental laws of mechanics, which means that there is a natural need.
3) a statement of research, free from elements of anthropomorphism (granting entities, with a cat. Touches people in their lives, human qualities), the laws of nature (Galileo in mechanics).
Defining features of natural philosophy were trends in philosophy: a metaphysical understanding of the past (indivisible) elements of nature as absolutely beskachestvennyh, lifeless, lack of historical perspective on the nature of and in connection with this deistic inconsistency (deism-presupposes God as an impersonal reasons being not involved in the further development of the world) that preserves the special position of God in the infinite world.


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