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Psycology » Spurs » Philosophy » Characteristics and main problems of medieval philosophy

Feud arose. Society (serfdom). Val. role played by the clergy. Monasteries and fortresses and agriculture centers and centers of education and culture. The church became the guardian of literature and education in Europe. In terms of the rigid dictatorship church and state power f. was declared the handmaiden of theology. This fil. called "scholasticism" (from the Latin. "Schola" - school).
The task of philosophy in this period was the search for rational ways justify the truth of scripture. This overall goal was concretized for three purposes:
1. Zoom truths of faith to the mental to the human spirit.
2. From philosophical methods give religious truth systemically rationalistic form.
3. Using philosophical arguments to exclude criticism of scripture.
Scholastica. Chap. direction in the development f. Avg. She taught in schools and universities. 3 periods: 1. Early Schola. (9-12c) (John Scotus Eriugena (810-877)) 2. Maturity (13c) (Thomas Aquinas) 3. Decline (14-15c) (William of Ockham).
It was believed that the truth has already been given in the Bible. texts and must correctly interpret them. Because b. allusive texts differed char., for their interpretation required. sophisticated logic. Question: God is one, but three in three persons - Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Hence
the first question of the relation of the general to the unit. Dispute about this dispute is known as universals, ie the nature of common genera and concepts. Noun. 2 main address this issue.
1. General kind (Univ.) noun. really, regardless of attendees. - Realism. (Thomas Aquinas) 3 kinds of noun. universals "to things" in the divine mind (extreme realism), "in the things themselves" as their essence or shape (moderate realism).
2. Universals are not noun. regardless of things and do not reflect their properties and qualities - nominalism. Total exists "after things" and yavl. result of our consciousness - (William of Ockham). The total is purely mental factor, our subjective name or designation of the class of objects (extreme nominalism) or general - is not just a name or designation and concept, including real common features of individual objects (moderate nominalism or conceptualism). Really exist only individual things with their individual qualities.
The second problem scholasticism - a problem docking wa existence of God. Evidence: 1. Metaphysical all created things individually imperfect, but together they form a series of increasing perfection (harmony of being), but this number can not be infinite, there is the beginning of this series - the god. 2. Ontologieskoe. If God noun-l only in our thoughts, he would end that yavl. contradiction. God exists in reality, and thought only partially.
The third problem - the relation between faith and reason. Anselm: thought is subject to faith, which should precede him. Without faith there is no true knowledge. In this faith can be made more understandable by using arguments of reason.
The fourth problem scholasticism - the problem of human freedom. Yavl ideal of freedom. following the call of the soul against the sinful desires. The more the body manages to subdue the lust, the more people is free. image of a free person cf. century - is an ascetic, torturing his body, thereby saving his soul.
The largest representative - Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274). Puts forward the concept of harmony between faith and reason. The sphere of reason applies all created nature, but to the realm of faith - the creative nature. There is no contradiction between them, they complement each other. On the issue of general concepts stuck positions moderate realism. Advances 5 docking in the existence of God: 1. From motion: every body movement smiling because he reported what or count of movement. However, the body, which reported it a go too got it from someone, and so should be the prime mover. 2. From need to chance: the purpose yavl necessary. several forms at the beginning which must be abs. need. 3. From producing reasons: the purpose of causality implies cause. 4. According to the degree of perfection: the increasing number of perfection implies the highest perfection. 5. Suitable device in the world can not be random-those natural compounds should initially essence be a supreme intelligent being, having a goal.


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