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Psycology » Spurs » Philosophy » Philosophical schools of the Hellenistic era: Epicureanism, Stoicism, Neo-Platonism

Epicurus. (341-270dne Hellenistic era) was born on the island of Samos. Moved to Athens, where he founded a school of "The Garden of Epicurus."
Briefly (section Frolov): Ch. task f. - The creation of ethics teaching on behavior, leading to happiness. Har-Xia complete rejection of social activism in contrast to Aristotle's definition of another person: the individual - primary, all public relations, relations of people depend on the subjective desires of individuals to obtain benefit and enjoyment.  Public Union - not the ultimate goal, but a means for personal well-being of individuals. The purpose of life - happiness, understood as pleasure, by which he meant the spirit of equanimity, peace of mind, moderation in carnal lusts.
E. much attention paid to combating superstitions, Greek religion, which deprives people of serenity of spirit, instilling fear of the afterlife. E. proves that the human soul also consists of atoms and dies with the body should not be afraid of death.
Details: E. materialist everything we feeling. true. Errors arise from wrong. assess what we feeling. Perception - unities. criterion of truth, it is critical. and conclusions about such things, a cat. not perceived by us, if only to enter into these were not in the log. contradict the data perceptions.
E. took the basic provisions of the atomism of Democritus. Argued that the doctrine of causal necessity all yavl. nature should not lead to conclusions about the inability of people. freedom. Within necessary. must specify the path to freedom. D. In Motion. atoms empty. called fur. necessary. E. believes that the movement caused ext. St.-tion of atoms - their weight, a cat. along with their form, position and order becomes an important subject. definition of the atom. Count. limited forms of atoms, we can not unnecessarily atom. have used. weight. When Motion. atoms can spontaneously deflection. at a slight angle and T.O move from rectilinear. Motion paths. curvilinear. This yavl. necessary. condition of human freedom. The result - a deeper look at the necessity and accident.
Criterion happiness - pleasure. Good - that produces pleasure. Evil - that is generated. suffering. Development of the doctrine of the way to happiness should be preceded by the removal of all that stands in the way: fear of the gods, death and contaminants. world. The gods are not able to intervene. in our world, and the soul is mortal. Osvob. fears opening the way to happiness. Logic Type 3: 1. Natural and necessary for life, 2. Nat., but life is not necessary 3. not req for life and not natural. He seeks only to the first and refrain. from the other. The result of such abstinence - complete equanimity, serenity or cat. Phil is happiness. Natural state of man - peace, ataraxia.
RACKS. 4 vdne end. (Zeno of Kition, Panetsy Rhodes, Posidonius, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius). Doctrine originated from the Hellenistic culture in connection with the development of cosmopolitan and individualistic ideas and the development of technology and mathematics.
Place and role of science S. determined trail. Way: logic - this fence, physics - fertile soil, ethics - its fruit. Main task of philosophy - ethics. Considered prerequisite happy life liberation of man from the power of the external world (before this - inclusion of the individual in public integer), which is the main advantage and strength of a sage. Sage currently does not fear death philosophy - science die (here the similarity with Sakratom), but not for the sake of virtue seek happiness, but for the sake of peace and tranquility, indifference to all external. Knowledge - a means of acquiring wisdom and the ability to live according to nature. Happiness - freedom from passions, indifference. All predetermined destiny. In understanding the nature - materialists. Distinguish truth (indeed, there are only the body) and true - and incorporeal does not exist, it's just saying. Created propositional logic as the study of the formation of simple sentences and complex developed on this basis the theory O (conjunction, disjunction, material mplikatsiya).
Unlike Epicurean ethics of the Stoic is that drains hold altruistic principle debt and fearlessness before the blows of fate, and at Epicurean ideal of the sage is not so much moral as aesthetic, it is based on pleasure yourself.  enlightened, refined selfishness.
Neoplatonism - reactionary philosophy decline of the Roman Empire (3-6 cc.). Thorium idealist Plato took the form of the mystical teachings after the material world from the spiritual ultimate beginning. Matter - the lowest link in the hierarchy of the universe, the "world soul", "spirit", the upper stage of "primal". The highest level of philosophy is not achieved through experience or reason, but by the mystical ecstasy. Initially originated in Egypt, Alexandria (Ammonium Sakkas). Next in Rome (Plotinus), in Syria (Iamblichus), Athens (Proclus).


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