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Psycology » Spurs » Philosophy » Classical Greek Philosophy: Plato, Aristotle, Cokrat

Assuming soul beginning of life he gives a typology of the different levels of the soul: the plant (lower, knows the functions of nutrition, growth and reproduction), Animals (+ sense of possibility and desire), reasonable (+ reasoning and thinking). For Aristotle, Plato no characteristic representation of the lowest solid beginning as a source of evil. Aristotle considers the matter as a neutral substrate, which is the basis for higher forms of life. Reason for Aristotle does not depend on the body and is able to comprehend and eternal life is the highest form entirely free from matter. This supreme intelligence Aristotle calls active, creative, and distinguishes it from a passive mind, only the perceiver. Last primary and inherent in man, while the active mind - only a small degree.

Socrates (469-399 BC)

Athenian. Socrates himself wrote nothing. His doctrine known only reportedly disciples Ksilofont, Plato, Aristophanes, as well as Aristotle, was a disciple of the Sophists, and then acted as their critic. Fundamental question of philosophy Socrates - what is man, what is human consciousness. Socrates tried to detect not only the content of consciousness is subjective, but objective and prove that the latter is a judge on the first. Objective content of consciousness is a mind that is able to give not only an individual opinion (subjective), but a general knowledge of obligatory (objective) that a person can get only through their own efforts and not get outside as a ready desire to seek the truth together Socrates in the dialogues.

In ethics, Socrates identifies virtue with knowledge (ethical rationalism is the essence of the teachings of Socrates). Immorality Socrates believed the fruit of ignorance of the truth. No man who knew what he could do something better, would make the worst opposite. Bad action is ignorance and wisdom - perfect knowledge. Human happiness - when his soul is full of virtues.

Philosophy by Socrates - Teaching about how to live. Socrates opposed to natural philosophy, the empirical study of nature, a low score for cognitive significance senses. The main task of knowledge - self-knowledge (self-knowledge). Knowledge of nature is impossible (agnosticism), perhaps the knowledge of the soul, and the soul of virtue correspond adulthood. Knowledge discovery is common to a number of things, Thus knowledge is the concept of an object and is achieved by the definition. Must noun. one common and the ultimate goal, a cat. obeys. all private purposes and cat. There are absolute highest good. Definitions generalized through induction. Precedes the definition of conversation, during which good questions posed expose interlocutor conflicted. Then eliminated imaginary knowledge, and uneasiness of mind goes in search of the real truth.


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