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Psycology » Spurs » Philosophy » Classical Greek Philosophy: Plato, Aristotle, Cokrat

Ancient Greek philosophy originated in the Ionian cities of the western coast of Asia Minor, founded by the Greeks. Developed here before the slave., Trade and raised on the basis of their culture. With the development of class society and the state was the liberation of philosophical ideas about nature and man from captivity mythological schemes. Was philosophical and primarily cosmological system. With no means of testing hypotheses by experimental systems were large, which meant that the variety of types of philosophical explanation of the world. It made ancient philosophy school of philosophical thought for future generations.

Plato (427-347 BC)

Athenian, was an opponent of the Athenian democracy. Philosophical development began in the school of Socrates.

Work: "Sophist", "Parmenides", "Theaetetus", "State", etc.

Plato's philosophical doctrine. Covers wide range of issues. Leading theme like Socrates is moral and ethical and critical research subjects are people, society and the state. Plato and Socrates as a condition of moral action considers the true knowledge. So he continues to work on research concepts S. trying to overcome subjectivism epistemology Sophists and achieve true for all single, objective knowledge. This work with the concepts of Plato called dialectics. Ethics is considered by Plato as a condition of the possibility of a just society. Ethical teachings of Plato based on a certain understanding of the essence of man, in which he shared the immortal soul and mortal, corruptible body (like Plato's division of all things on the eternal self-existent and non-independent ideas and transitory things of the sensual world). Soul like the idea of ​​one and indivisible, and the body is divisible and consists of parts. Essence of the soul, not only in its unity, but also in its self-motion (all the driving himself immortal self and vice versa). According to Plato the human soul consists of two parts: the highest - the reasonable and lower - sensual. The rational soul is committed to the welfare, bodily principle is regarded as in itself evil, negative. After death, the soul separates from the body and then either infused into any human or animal body, depending on how virtuous life she led, or, in the ideal case (for the most perfect souls), remains in the realm of ideas. With the doctrine of pre-existence of souls connected with the idea of ​​knowledge as Plato recollection. To realization in the body soul was in the supersensible world and could contemplate ideas in all their perfection and beauty, so after completion of sensory phenomena for her for her is just an excuse to have recalled how their true essence. Doctrine of recollection had a great influence on the development of the idealist theory of knowledge both in antiquity and in subsequent periods, the development of philosophical thought.

With doctrine of man and the soul closely linked Plato's theory of the state. Plato's aim was to create a model of the perfect human society ideal state. Ethics Plato is not an individual, such as the Stoics and Epicureans, and social. Plato divides people into three types depending on what part of the soul is predominant in them: reasonable (sages, philosophers, seek to behold the beauty and order of ideas, the adherents of truth and justice, moderate in sense gratification, their role - in an ideal rulers state-ve), affective or emotional (man differs bravery, courage, ability to subdue lust debt are warriors), lusting or sensual (strongly committed to bodily physical world, this class of peasants and artisans, their role is to provide the material side of life state- Islands). In addition there is a common virtue which Plato valued very highly - a measure.

According to Plato fair and perfect state - is the highest of all that can exist on earth. Therefore, the person lives for the state, not the state for the sake of man. Ie pronounced universal domination over the individual.

Abstracts (briefly): Plato - the founder objective idealism. Cognition in Plato - have their pre-earthly soul memory existence. Believed that human feelings are deceiving. Method of knowledge - the dialectic. Private property and the family - undermine the conditions of society. Therefore, Plato developed a plan hostel based on the removal of rulers and warriors of personal property, as well as teaching about the state of women and community parenting.


Work: "On the Soul", "Physics", "Categories", etc.

Abstracts (briefly): Aristotle - the creator of logic, was a pupil of Plato, but rejected it idealistic theory of ideas. According to Aristotle, Plato made a perfect super-sensible world, along with the real world. Idea ("form") is inseparable from the thing, every thing is izz two principles - matter and form. At the heart of the universe is uncertain passive substrate "first matter." However, in such a matter noun. only the abstraction. In reality it is determined activity themselves intangible forms. Matter is the ability, the ability to stuff the form - its reality. Possibility becomes a reality thanks to the movement. Form materializes, matter is formed. God plays the role of a stationary engine of the world, to-ing one and eternal.

Aristotle saw the danger absolute role of state-va in the teachings of Plato, since the hard principle of subordination of the individual common in the real world is often manifested in a terrible tyranny. However, Aristotle and Plato as the purpose of achieving the state of virtue and happiness. Crowns all virtues - justice. Aristotle defines man as a social animal endowed with reason, adapted for life in common.

Aristotle makes adjustments to the Plato's doctrine of the soul.

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