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Psycology » Spurs » Philosophy » Formation of Greek philosophy

Dr. gr.f (DGF) occurred in the western coast of the Ionian cities of Asia is small, the basics. Greeks. Developed here before the slave., Trade and raised on the basis of their culture. With the development of class society and the state was the liberation of philosophical ideas about nature and man from captivity mythological schemes. Was philosophical and primarily cosmological system. With no means of testing hypotheses by experimental systems were large, which meant that the variety of types of philosophical explanation of the world. This made the ancient philosophy school of philosophical thought for future generations.

First exercise - of Miletus in the VII-VI. NAM - Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes. question where everything arises and what turns, they start looking for a change of origin of all things. Primitive matter - living as a whole and in parts, endowed with soul and movement. And engaged in diversified activities Pract. thus, they tend to philosophical materialism and spontaneous dialectic.

Thales end 7 start up in ne. Merchant, traveled a lot. Everything happened from some primitive matter wet or water. Everything is born from this source. Earth - a flat disk afloat. on types. water. Water and all of her things happened - not dead. The universe is full of gods, all animate. Examples - magnet and amber can lead in Motion. other things - they have a soul. is at the origin of the world demythologizing - Zeus - universal reason, the gods - acting force in the world.

Anaximander. Introduced the concept of first principles of all things - Arche and considered the primary source of such Apeiron from which separated. opposites of hot and cold, giving rise to all things. Their struggle creates space, hot - fire, cold - heaven and earth. Apeiron has no boundaries, it is infinite. Gave the first formulation of the law of conservation of energy. Cosmology. Earth - cylinder. around three celestial rings: solar, lunar and stellar. All separate from the infinite must return to it. Therefore worlds arise and collapse. suggested the idea of ​​evolution, man, like other creatures, descended from fish.

Anaximenes. Time conquest Miletus Persians. Primitive matter - air. All substances are obtained by concentration and dilution air. Air is breath embracing the whole world. Eternal, and air mobile, thickening, forms clouds, then water, then earth and stones. We cut - fire. The idea of ​​the transformation of quantity into quality. Earth - a disc supported. air. Star - fire, only far. Explanation gave close
Eclipses of the Moon and the Sun.

Pythagoras and the early Pythagoreans. Pythagoras of Samos 580-500 gdne. Foundation of the world no mater the first principle, and the number, the cat form cosmic order - a prototype Society. order. To understand the world - is to know the number of running it. The first attempt to raise the issue of the role of the quant. yavl hand. Nature. Pythagoreans tore number of things, turned them into independent beings absolutised and worshiped them. The idea that everything in the Nat. subordinated objectified. chisl relations. thanks abs properties led to the idealistic P. assertion that it is the number, not matter yavl. fundamental principle of all. All things are made up of opposites - Odd or Even, limit the infinite unity of the set, right left, male female. However, their opposites do not pass each other (unlike Heraclitus).

Heracles. Originally from Ephesus. (530 - 470 ggdne). The starting point of the doctrine of the world - the idea of ​​the transient, volatile char. everything that exists. Dialectical materialism. All noun. things emerged from the first principles of the material - is fire. World tries. in a constant process of change. Reason perpetual change - the struggle of opposites. Soul of the fire, too, the soul is material. All things arise out of the fire according to need. The world is ruled "logos" (the law, the need). The world is a process in which every thing turns into its protivopol. Thanks protivopol fight. found their inner identity: life and death, the way up and down. Universality of each change and the transition in the opposite quality. doing everything Kutch. things relative. Logos - the basis of universality and truth people. knowledge. At the heart of thinking are feeling. Thinking - common to all people, all given to know yourself and be reasonable. However, most people do not know the universal and eternal, not seek knowledge, take mnogoznanie in mind.

Eleatics. In VI-V centuries d ne Centre spirit. Development moved. Yu Italy (agricultural area). Against changing things primordial advanced the doctrine of the immutable essence of being a true and illusory all visible changes and differences. In the future - the source of idealism. Belittling sensory experience. Zenon - paradoxes against dialectics. This metaphysics.

Xenophanes. VI-5 in ne d. Criticized the idea of ​​many gods (If horses could draw what they would have represented their gods as horses). He pantheist. The world is eternal and indestructible, is something common and it is a single god. Nature is not divine. All that is born and grows there is water and earth. On the nature of the gods can not be true knowledge, only opinion. In the theory of knowledge - lack of sense knowledge. Materialist, but reached the level of abstraction, that being the same and identical to itself uniformly.

Parmenides. Elea. Vvdne 6-5. World - vesch. ball, which is nowhere voids and hence the possibility of movement. (All filled) Every thought is a thought about existing. Therefore non-existent. can not be thought of as a carrier., where non-existent. not. Hence it is not possible emergence and destruction. Of abs. fullness that the world has no parts. He is one. Set - delusion. Hence, it should be pointed out the impossibility of movement, appearance, destruction. Introduces elements of rationalism, the founder of metaphysics.

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