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Psycology » Spurs » Philosophy » The problem of scientific philosophy. Relationship of philosophy and the special sciences

Comparison of cognitive abilities and philosophy of specific sciences, finding a place of philosophy in the system of human knowledge has a long tradition in European culture. In the relation of philosophy and scientific expertise are three main historical periods, and partly the type, method of relations:
1. Initial cumulative knowledge of ancient philosophy and named addressed to a variety of subjects. Primary knowledge simultaneously contained the pranauku and prafilosofiyu. With the development of both gradually refined their specificity, clearly defined relationship and the development of cognitive functions.
2. Specialty knowledge, the formation of new concrete sciences, their separation from the body of knowledge (the so-called "philosophy"). At the same time there was a development philosophy as a special field of knowledge, its separation from the concrete sciences. This process is most intense occurred in 17-18 centuries.
3. Formation of theoretical sections a number of sciences, their gradual integration, synthesis.
In the first two periods of concrete scientific knowledge, except for a relatively small part of it, was of an experienced, descriptive. Felt "deficit" of theoretical thinking, the ability to see the connections of the various phenomena, general patterns and trends. Such problems are largely fell to the lot of philosophy, which was to build an overall picture of speculative nature (natural philosophy), society (philosophy of history).
The third period began in the 19th century and then goes into the 20th. At this time many theoretical problems that philosophy has decided to form a speculative science confidently assumed. Philosophers attempt to solve these problems previous methods are more naive and unsuccessful. Clearer it becomes that the theoretical picture of universal peace philosophy should build not purely speculative, not instead of science, along with science, based on a synthesis of scientific knowledge concretions. This raises the issue on the agenda of scientific philosophy itself.
Argued that philosophy is not a science:
1. F. engaged in eternal principle intractable problems, such as the fundamental question of philosophy. But why is it resolved? Arises as a living from nonliving undecided science. How does the human mind undecided science. Philosophy can only offer hypotheses to address these issues, but can not decide.
2. F. has no experimental basis. But such sciences as mathematics and social sciences do not have.

the fact that philosophy is not yavl. natural science does not mean that it is not science and should not be equated with natural science.

Aristotle philosophy - "Mrs. sciences." Hegel: philosophy - "Queen of Sciences" or "science of sciences." 19-20 centuries. Positivism: philosophy - "surrogate science." Mature science itself philosophy.
Are increasingly aware that the universal view of the world should not build F purely speculative, not instead of science, and with science-based generalization of specific scientific knowledge (it has raised the issue on the agenda of most scientific F). For philosophical positivism questioned the cognitive abilities of F and its scientific. Was formulated conclusion that F - is a substitute science, having a right to exist in those periods when there has not developed a mature scientific knowledge. The other extreme - or consider F "science of sciences", or that F solves in principle the same problems that science, just on the other, the maximum aggregate level.
It is obvious that F has lost its function to be the first form of theoretical understanding of reality, but to reveal its specificity - be a form of universal theoretical knowledge.
Features F:
1. Universalism (applies for the production of universal knowledge - "the mother of science", "science of sciences"
2. Philosophical generalization has a great potential, since science come from experience, and special experiments that have their limits, and F is able to see the world beyond the human
3. Substantialism - seen in the desire to explain the events through a single steady start.
Features of science:
1. Focusing on substantive and objective research (the study of objects that can be included in the activities and to obey the laws of the objective).
2. Reflects objects and Science is not the form of contemplation, but in the form of practice (science can go beyond the ordinary experience and study objects irrespective of practical development).


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