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Psycology » Spurs » Philosophy » Subject of philosophy, its structure and function. Problem fundamental question of philosophy. Fundamental philosophical trends

Special historical type M. yavl. Philosophy - theoretically formulated type of world from the standpoint of reason. Also, is the science of the most general laws of life and methodology of knowledge of matter and man.
Function of there about 2.5 thousand years ago. Development of mankind is in two ways: 1 - Religion 2 - philosophy. This is due to the destruction of the old customs and traditions, the abandonment of the old mythological ideas about the world and man. New approaches are required to explain this. This is partly offset by the world's religions. Emergence of the term "philosophy" associated with the name of Pythagoras, who believed that only God has the wisdom, and the man is only true love of wisdom (Filio-love sofia-wisdom). Function of people expressed the need for a new socio-cultural level comprehend what is happening from the standpoint of reason and intellect. Attention philosophy originally occupied nature. Gradually entered into the sphere of philosophy and became a constant subject of her interest in issues of social life. Along with the subject thinking philosophers were always the man himself, his nature, mind, senses. Language, morality, knowledge, religion, art, and other manifestations of human abilities and life problems. In cf. century was dominated by religious M. Conditions for the development of AF were complex, but the development was done. New stage of development fil. thought - with the Renaissance, when Phil gets independence, freed from the shackles of religion.
Structure philosophy: 1) ontology - theory of being, 2) epistemology - the theory. cognitive understanding of man's relationship to reality, and 3) praxeology - theor. understanding of man's relationship to the active d-ti 4) axiology - the theory of value judgment of man's relationship to Dr. minute 5) philosophical anthropology; 6) logic - the doctrine of the laws of thought; 7) ethics - Moral theory, 8) history philosophical thought; 9) philosophical problem of science.
Function of philosophy: 1) Worldview - formation picture of the world, 2) Methodological - logical-theoretical analysis of the scientific and practical activity, and 3) explication - revealing hidden, essential in dec. phenomena and synthesis of different categories, and 4) Rationalization - considering all the problems from the standpoint of reason; 5) Critical attitude. For the philosophy of doubt necessary; 6) The integrating function. It is associated with an attitude and philosophy of the special sciences.
Nature of philosophical problems. Main philosophical questions traditionally represents the philosophy of eternal and immutable. Identification by Marx their historical character, to determine significant change methods of philosophical inquiry, led to a rethinking of these issues: the understanding of philosophical problems was introduced historicism.
So that seemed eternal attitude "human nature" was reinterpreted as a historically volatile. It turned out that the problem in different historical periods is able not just to change its character, escalate, but also grow into a global problem, as it happened in our day. And it's not two or three issues, we are talking about the new general conception of philosophy and its purpose.
In light of the historical materialist approach classical philosophical problems have lost shape unchanged, speculative problems to be solved. They appeared as the fundamental contradictions of living human history, having open-ended. Hence their theoretical solution is conceived not as a final, removing the problem. Was also a new understanding of the philosophical problems are not as "clean" problems of consciousness, but as problems of social life, which objectively arise are resolved in human life practice. It followed that the philosophical thought must comprehend such problems not only in theory but also in practical terms.
Human history - special kind of reality. This complex mix of social life (forms of production, socio-economic and political structures) and all sorts of spiritual its components. Classical philosophy tradition associated with the comprehension of the eternal principles of understanding the world and human life. Marx entered into a dispute with this understanding, stressing that philosophical thought facing the socio-historical life of people exposed to the market, development. It followed reinterpretation subject, methods and results of historical philosophy as taking a different look at different times. Marx sought to overcome the traditional isolation of philosophy from reality, as well as philosophers claim to final judgment on it.

Fundamental question of philosophy reveals correlation between the ideal and the material, mind and matter. Justification gives his answers to two questions: 1) what is the primary - mind or matter? and 2) whether the world is knowable? Depending on how philosophers and representatives of different philosophical schools and movements, responded to this question, they were divided into two camps: the materialists and idealists. Materialists come that the primary and secondary matter ideal processes, believe that the world is knowable, while the idealists argue substantiality and primacy of the ideal factor and mostly deny the knowability of the world. In the 19th century. subject of philosophy is to study the general principles of nature, society and human thought, and she is not only a doctrine of being, but also the methodology of scientific knowledge and practice. Modern philosophy studies the world as a multi-dimensional and multi-level system. Structural elements, ontology - the doctrine of being, epistemology - theory of knowledge, dialectics - the doctrine of development, social philosophy - theory of society, logic, ethics, aesthetics, history of philosophy. Currently, philosophical theory - a complex system of knowledge, the main content of which is the most general principles of being and knowledge, laws of functioning and development of the objective, infinite in its manifestations in the world.
Problem F fundamental question: Is there a question for all philosophy? The relation of spirit to nature, to the existence of consciousness, etc.? Attitude of the soul to the body - powerful question.

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