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Psycology » Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder

Classification dsm and ub

Classification of schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorders is presented in Table. 9.4. DSM-IIIR In this classification system, Schizophrenia Determined on the basis of symptoms in the acute phase, as well as the course of the disease, in relation to which the condition of continuous presence extends disorder symptoms for at least six months (Table 9.5). Acute symptoms are divided into three groups. None of the symptoms of the first group corresponds to the symptoms of the first rank by Schneider. The second group includes the bizarre delusions that other members of the same subculture perceived as totally implausible. Drive

Treatment of Schizophrenia: antipsychotic drugs

Treatment of schizophrenia conducted in the acute period, and the period of chronic disability. In general, the best results are achieved with a combination of drug therapy and social treatments, whereas methods to ensure psychodynamic insight, useless. This section is based on materials of clinical trials, during which determined the efficacy of various forms of treatment. Further, in the section on the management of patients considered the use of these treatments in routine clinical practice. History insulinoshokovoy therapy warns clinicians experience relatively

Treatment of Schizophrenia: antidepressants and lithium

As already explained, the symptoms of depression are fairly common in schizophrenia (see p.203). Because depressive symptoms is not easy to differentiate from apathy, difficult to assess the effectiveness of antidepressant therapy in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia. Until now, been no satisfactory clinical trials. Value of lithium in the treatment of schizophrenia is unclear. Selected positive results may relate to treatment schizoaffective cases. There is evidence that lithium has a therapeutic effect in this form of the disease. During the two small trials Brockington et al. (1978) found that hlorpromaz

The causes of schizophrenia: social factors

If culture in the etiology of schizophrenia are essential cultural factors, it would be logical to expect that the incidence of this disorder will differ significantly in countries with contrasting cultures. Meanwhile, as noted earlier (see p. 199), these figures are remarkably similar in different parts of the globe, with the most exceptional performance recorded, particularly in northern Sweden, northwestern Yugoslavia, ie there where the culture is not much different from that of other regions in the western world. At the same time, digital data on the incidence in countries with different culture (for example, in Nigeria, and Ying

Some other important terms

Schizophreniform states As already mentioned, the term schizophreniform state Langfeldtom applied to cases with a good prognosis in contrast to the true schizophrenia (Langfeldt 1961). The main characteristic of these states were: the presence of precipitating factors; acute onset; dizziness; presence of depressive and hysterical traits. Although some data (see: Welner, Stromgren 1958), a more favorable outcome schizophreniform cases seem to confirm the results of modern research largely questioned the predictive value of criteria Langfeldta. Note that in the DSM-IIIR term schizophrenia

Schizophreniform disorder

Whatever the definition of schizophrenia may be made from time to time will be occasions in some respects similar to schizophrenia and yet not quite satisfy the diagnostic criteria. Schizophreniform disorder can be divided into four groups: delusional or paranoid disorders; short disorders; disorders accompanied by severe affective symptoms, a disorder in which there are not all the symptoms required for a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The last three groups will be discussed below, delusional (paranoid) disorder in the next chapter. (A) Short disorders

Treatment of schizophrenia: behavioral therapy

The results of behavioral therapy for schizophrenia have not yet received a full assessment. Most of the results reported in the publications may be the result of increased attention given to the patient. Individual methods include social skills training (see: Wallace et al. 1980; Liberman et al. 1986). When the coupon system As with the individual methods used positive and negative incentives aimed at changing behavior, but rather it applies to all patients in the office than to one individual patient. The reward can be praise and interest, but generally issued stamps (hence the name of the method),

Evaluation

The assessment begins with the differential diagnosis, in which, in particular, exclude organic disorder (especially state, substance use disorders), affective disorder and personality disorder. In practice, it is often the most difficult to identify all the symptoms of a closed or suspicious patient and obtain the necessary information. This may take a few interviews, and careful observation, carried out by nursing staff. With special difficulties in many cases associated with differential diagnosis of affective disorder, is often required

Psychological Testing

In assessing the state of schizophrenic formal psychological testing can rarely add anything substantial to the data of clinical observation. Previously, the study of thought processes used projective tests (such as the Rorschach and Thematic Apperception Test), but they are unreliable and lack validity. More recent tests using role-grid technique and sort items, give more reliable results, but these data are likely to be superfluous if the mental state examined closely enough. Standardized tests to determine personality IU

The causes of schizophrenia: pretsipitiruyushie factors

Somatic diseases and rolls If schizophrenia develops immediately after the physical illness or postpartum, this relationship seems to usually caused by stress common psychological and physiological factors rather than any specific pathogen. Relationship between neurological disorders and schizophrenia has been previously described (see p.220), but, as already explained, the reasons for this kind should be viewed as predisposing than as precipitating. Psychosocial stressors opinion that life stressors can act as precipitates schizophrenia, speaks quite often, but in this Off
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