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Psycology » Psychophysiologically-oriented model of psychosomatic disorders

Integration of psychosomatic concepts

Despite the differences set out views on the mechanisms of psychosomatic disorders, all of the above concept to some extent true. The reason why such a variety of models that each focuses only on individual elements of such a complex and multifaceted process, the interaction of body and psyche. From the standpoint of somatic-centered approach to psychotherapy and psychology, psychogenic and psychosomatic diseases closer to each other. As with those, and with others in order obligate exist and psycho-emotional and physical disorders, just prioritize their alternate. At

Psihoekologicheskaya model

According to this view of the nature of psychological and psychosomatic problems, they stem from conflicts between biological and social evolution of man (Sandomirskiy ME, 2000). More precisely, the contradictions between the way of life of modern man and the natural structure of its nervous system (physiological and ecological contradiction), as well as between social stereotypes of emotional expression and natural, physiological mechanisms of emotional response (socio-ecological contradiction). The latter was described at the dawn of psychoanalysis and is associated with many taboo (Freud), imposes stringent

Model frustration

Important role in explaining the relationship of psychosomatic disorders and stress plays a model of frustration, or painful feelings of failure, accompanied by intense negative emotions. Physiological effects of these same emotional outbursts, especially if repeated frustration repeatedly lead to psychosomatic disorders. Frustration can be caused by a wide variety of situations in which there is a kind of momentary internal conflict - desired and the actual discrepancy. Thus, it is kind of synonymous with emotional stress, more precisely, one of its constituent psychological

Deficit satisfaction

Another physiological model of psychosomatic and psychological disorders is actually deficiency syndrome satisfaction by K. Blum (reward deiciency), considered by Western authors as a scourge of modern society. This model was developed on the basis of known experiments Olds and Milner with self-stimulation animals introduced into the brain through electrodes. These authors have found that if the electrode is placed in a number of deep subcortical structures, called centers meet, the experimental animal continuously carries out their self-stimulation, not reacting to any external stimuli. Irritation described Article

Conditioned reflex (conditioning) and cognitive models

Among these models are both well-known theoretical models: conditioned reflex theory in the form of the classical model (I. P.Pavlov), cortico-visceral theory of the formation of internal diseases (K. M.Bykov, I. T.Kurtsin), which served as a development previous, and more recent models: imprinting (K. Lorenz), learned helplessness (Seligman M.). Classical conditioned reflex model and cortico-visceral theory in the 20-30-ies. The twentieth century. in the works of his students and P.Pavlova was established physiological model of the internal psychological conflict. In experiments with animals it has been found that the development of the somatic disorders resulting

Model of disease preparedness (c. Uexküll)

Represents the integration models W. Cannon and H. Selye, considered clinical-psychological point of view as a special psycho-physiological state of readiness (V. Uexkuell, 1963). This refers to a person's willingness to extreme, stress factors, in which the transition of psycho-emotional readiness alert bodily. The latter is a set of characteristic physiological reactions to stress, driven not by reason, and affect. If the purpose for which intended readiness is not achieved and appropriate actions are delayed, something like the condition becomes chronic. Associated with its maintenance

The theory of stress and relaxation responses

As is known, the stress response, or a universal adaptation syndrome described physiologist H. Selye, literally means stress reaction. This refers to the first voltage adaptive physiological mechanisms. Accordingly, under this model, psychosomatic disorders are regarded as diseases of adaptation. However, for the purposes of psycho we consider it appropriate to combine the representation of models and G.Selje W. Cannon, extending to the description of the stress response and more power in the literal sense - muscle tension. Less than described in the literature is a downside - the opposite to

Fight or flight response (W. Cannon) hypersympathicotonia and muscular armor (Wilhelm Reich)

Back in the 20s physiologist W. Cannon developed a theory of emotion, considering sthenic negative emotions as defensive fight or flight response (fight-or-flight). From this perspective, negative emotions such as anger or fear, biologically feasible: they prepare the body to ensure that develop the most intense muscle activity, engaging in battle or fleeing. In this case the activation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system - the blood ejected adrenaline that causes heart palpitations, increased blood pressure, blood flow redistribution, increase respiration, blood types
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