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Psycology » Personality disorder

Theory of learning

Several authors have suggested that antisocial personality is a result of lack of proper social learning. Scott (1960) proposed a simple scheme based more on common sense than on experimental evidence, but provides a useful framework for the clinician. He outlined four areas in which you may re-develop antisocial behavior. First, people often learns behavior contrary to the generally accepted standards in the process of formation under asocial family. Second, sometimes the person is not a favorable opportunity to learn the relevant rights


Until recently, information on the frequency of personality disorders in the general population was scant. However, more recently as a result of large-scale survey of the population in three U.S. cities of Baltimore, New Haven and St. Louis (Robins et al. 1984) have provided evidence of this kind of antisocial personality disorder. In each city surveyed (using the criteria of DSM-III) by more than 3,000 people. According to the accumulated data, the probability of occurrence of this disorder throughout life lies between 2.1 and 3.3%. Among those aged 25 to 44 years this personality disorder is more common than among those to

Schizoid personality disorder

This term is used in the ICD-10 and DSM-IIIR. In this disorder, a person faces in yourself and feel more inclined to dive into fantasy than to take action. He is emotionally cold, arrogant and kept apart from other people. Schizoid name was suggested Kretschmer (Kretschmer 1936), who believed that there is etiologic relationship between this type of personality and schizophrenia (see Chap. 9). However, a stable relationship between these two phenomena is not found, and the term should be used as a descriptive without implying a causal relationship with schizophrenia. The most notable feature in this disorder is the lack of em

Affective personality disorder

Some people in lifelong observed mood dysregulation. This can be expressed in constant gloom (depressive personality disorder) or the now familiar state of euphoria inadequate circumstances (gipertimicheskoe personality disorder) or alternating these two extremes (cycloidal or cyclothymic personality disorder). These types of personality disorders are described for many years and are easily recognized in clinical practice. However, they do not exist in the ICD-10 nor DSM-IIIR. The fact that the two systems, these disorders are classified in the category of mood disorders (personality disorders and not)

Paranoid personality disorder

This term is used in both ICD-10 and in the DSM-IIIR. Central characteristic features of this type of pathological personality are suspicious, or sensitivity. If minor obsessive traits or theatricality, as already noted, can multiply socially valuable qualities of normal personality, the paranoid features such positive side is missing. Even accounting for only a small part of the whole personality, they bring distrust that goes far beyond the usual diligence, or sensitivity, generating a sharp reaction resistance to the detriment of social relations. When paranoid personality disorder

Theatre (hysterical, demonstrative) personality disorder (histrionic personality disorder)

This term is used in the ICD-10 and DSM-IIIR. Important features of such a person is a tendency to dramatization, thirst new desire to experience strong emotions, and self-centered approach to personal relationships. Having separate minor features demonstrative, theatricality can be socially useful. Carriers such features charming, able to make a nice company, they often invited to visit, they are successfully involved in amateur theatricals, and speaking to an audience with a speech, able to capture the audience. They tend to hide their emotions, they are easy to enthrall or to tears, but these feelings are soon about

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

The term obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is used in DSM-IIIR. In accordance with the ICD-10 is preferably call it a personality disorder anankastnym adhering terminology Kahn (1928). The only advantage of the latter here is that it avoids the erroneous interpretation of the term as indicating the inevitable link between this type of personality and obsessive-compulsive disorder. (People with this personality type are also prone to anxiety and depressive disorders.) It is advisable to preface the description of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder overview displays obsessional traits in a subject with a norm

Classification of Personality Disorders

Before considering possible approaches to the classification of personality disorder, one must realize that each category in any classification scheme is an ideal type, which correspond exactly to few patients. Quote from Schneider (1950): Every clinician will be given to strong confusion, if asked to classify the relevant types of psychopaths (ie, pathological personality), with whom he had an affair during any one year. Except that there are several cases in which you can apply one of the characteristic types of descriptions or a combination thereof without limitation. People can not be accurately

How to develop understanding of pathological personality

The concept of pathological personality in psychiatry can be traced from the beginning of the XIX century, when the French psychiatrist Pinel described ManieSansDelire (mania without delirium). Pinel used this term to patients prone to violent outbursts and inexplicable violence, but without delirium (which at the time was considered the main sign of mental illness; Delire French term for delirium). Apparently, this group included not only patients with antisocial personality type (as they would be treated at the moment), but also the mentally ill who have absent nonsense, such as in some patients with mania. (See article Kavka (1949) translation of the relevant section

The notion of a pathological personality

In some cases, personality pathology can be explicit example, when talking about individuals who are prone to violence and sadism, repeatedly harming others and showed no remorse. Nevertheless, it is impossible to make a clear distinction between normal and pathological. Indeed, it is hard to decide what criteria should govern here. For this purpose, it was proposed two criteria: the statistical and social. According to the first statistical criterion pathological personality different from normal only in quantitative terms, and the boundary between them is determined by the corresponding critical exponent, cuttings
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