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Psycology » Neurosis: Part II

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Differential Diagnosis

It is necessary to distinguish obsessive-compulsive disorders from other disorders in which there obsessional symptoms. The distinction between generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder and phobic disorders Rarely causes difficulty subject to careful anamnesis and a thorough examination of mental status. For obsessive-compulsive disorder is often interrupted by periods of depression in which obsessional symptoms worsen, and in such cases you can skip depressive disorder. Depressive disorders may also be accompanied by obsessive sim

Conversion and dissociative disorders: differential diagnosis

Physical illness may be misdiagnosed as conversion disorder or dissociative in three cases. First, the symptoms may be due to not yet identified medical condition (eg, undiagnosed esophagus causing difficulty in swallowing). Second, undetected brain disease (for example, a small tumor or frontal parietal lobe or early dementia) may in some unknown way to release hysterical symptoms. Third, physical illness can give nonspecific stimulus for the development of hysterical symptoms in a patient with a hysterical personality. Not

Conversion and dissociative disorders

Until recently, in relation to these disturbances, as a rule, used the term hysteria. The change in terminology was made mainly because the word hysteria used everyday language to describe an extravagant behavior, and the use of the same word in relation to the various phenomena of the syndrome, considered here, leads to confusion. Two major classification systems used two different approaches. In DSM-IIIR, the terms conversion disorder and dissociative disorder: the first to refer to disorders in which physical symptoms are the main manifestations, the second chapter

Obsessive-compulsive disorder: clinical picture

Obsessive-compulsive disorder characterized by obsessive thinking, compulsive behavior and varying degrees of anxiety, depression and depersonalization. Obsessive and compulsive symptoms described on p.24-26, but for the reader can be useful if you repeat here their main characteristic features. Obsessive (intrusive) thoughts are words, ideas and beliefs that are recognized by the patient as their own, which forcibly invade consciousness. Since they are usually obnoxious attempts to expel them. It's a combination of the internal sense of compulsive urges and efforts to resist it characterizes obs

Other phobic disorders

These disorders are any of the major classification systems not separately, but still represent a significant enough interest to be discussed here. They include the following phobias: (I) Fear of dental treatment About 5% of adults have a fear of the dental chair, which can become so strong that makes avoid any dental treatment, thereby developing caries (Gale, Ayer 1969; Kleinknecht et aL 1973 ). (II) excretion Phobia Patients suffering from these phobias or nervous and can not bring himself to urinate in public restrooms, or experience frequent urination, tied


Patients with clinical signs of agoraphobia worried when they are away from home, or among the crowd, or in situations of which can not easily get out. In such circumstances, the symptoms are the same as for any anxiety disorder (see p. 132), but some other symptoms such as depression, depersonalization and obsessional thoughts, with agoraphobia are more common than in other phobic disorders. When two groups of agoraphobia anxiety symptoms are more pronounced than in other types of phobic disorders. First, more frequent panic attacks, or arising as a reaction to the surrounding stimuli, either spontaneously. In DSM-IIIR with more than h

Social phobia

With this disorder, a person comes to an alarming state inadequate in situations where he was being watched and could subject him to criticism. He tends to avoid such situations, and if he still misses them, it is not involved in them fully, for example, he escapes to join the conversation or sits where the least noticeable. Anxiety is felt also in anticipation of the possibility of entering into a similar situation, for example, when visiting restaurants, canteens and parties, attendance at seminars, meetings and other events where you need to speak in public, this includes cases where a negligible effect under

Simple phobia

In this type of disorder in a state of inadequate patient anxiety at the sight of a certain object or a certain situation, which he tries to avoid. In the presence of such an object, or in such a situation may be tested on a number of anxiety symptoms (see p. 132). Avoidance of stimuli corresponding strong and in most cases they do avoid. The prospect of such a facility to meet or get into a situation is alarming anticipation for example, a person horrifying storms may experience anxiety when the sky is clouded. Simple phobias are often characterized by the addition of

Phobic anxiety disorders

Phobic anxiety disorders have, in fact, the same symptoms as generalized anxiety disorder, but these symptoms occur only under special circumstances. In some phobic disorders such circumstances a bit and most of the time the patient is not experiencing anxiety, otherwise the alarm is triggered by many factors, but even here there are situations in which the disturbance does not occur. Another two features characterize phobic disorders: people avoid circumstances that provoke anxiety, or he feels anxious foreboding, When in the future is expected to meet with such serv

Anxiety Disorders: Treatment

Supporting activities In most generalized anxiety disorders is not required to appoint anxiolytic drugs. Usually the patient enough conversation with the doctor and his exhortations. The interview should not be long, it is important that the patient felt that he fully takes account of the doctor and that his problems are met sympathy and understanding. Need to give a clear explanation of any physical symptoms associated with anxiety, for example, to explain that palpitations are the result of an exaggerated, compared with normal reactions to stressful events, and not a sign of heart disease. Need help ppg
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