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Psycology » Etiology


Research method used in psychoanalysis, unlike already considered methods have been developed specifically for the study of mental disorders. It has emerged from clinical experience, and not from the construction on the basis of basic sciences. Psychoanalysis is characterized by a particularly complex and universal theory of both normal and pathological mental functioning. Compared with experimental psychology, it is much more concerned with the irrational side of mental activity. Because psychoanalytic theory offers a broad range of clinical explanations of phenomena, it has a wide circle of adherents. However, the same is particularly


Ethology has monitored and description of behavior, in particular those of its forms that seem natural. This science has indirectly contributed to the psychiatric etiology, suggesting a simple observation techniques that have proven valuable in the study of children's behavior. In addition, great importance was the study of critical periods of development, during which explore specific behavior is easier than at any other time. During ethological primate studies examined the effects of separation of calves from their mothers. When removed from the premises of the primacy of the mother (in the rest of the environment remains unchanged), d


When neuropathological investigations, attempts to answer the question of whether the associated structural changes in the brain (localized or diffuse) with a certain kind of mental disorder. In the past there have been many studies on the brain autopsicheskih patients who suffered from schizophrenia or affective disorders. Since no changes were not found, it has been suggested that these mental disorders are caused by impaired function rather than structure (hence the term functional psychosis is sometimes used as a collective name for these states). Neurosurgeons


Endocrinological studies provide an opportunity to directly correlate the concentration of circulating hormones with certain disease states. Thus, in patients with depression reveals a high level of free and total plasma cortisol secretion due to increase (see: Sachar 1982). Increased cortisol secretion may be a secondary phenomenon in relation to the stress response associated with the patient's perception of his illness, but it can also be one of the links in the pathogenetic mechanism of depression. Attempts have been used to solve this question tests for endocrine regulation. For example, some ppg

Biochemical studies

Biochemical studies can be directed either to the cause of the disease or the mechanisms of its manifestations. Methods of biochemical studies are too numerous that they can be more or less fully present in these pages also assumes that the reader has some knowledge on this subject. The main objective of this section is to consider some of the problems associated with the use of biochemical methods for the study of mental disorders. The first problem is that the living human brain is not available for detailed biochemical studies ethically acceptable method

Social sciences

Many of the concepts used by sociologists, applicable in psychiatry. As noted (see p.82), the notion of social class and subcultures were informative in epidemiological studies, in which found that schizophrenia is more common in lower social classes. Concept of social stigma and labeling are quite appropriate in analyzing the process of disability of persons with chronic mental illness living in the community, and the impact of hospital treatment on the patient unable to understand better considering the hospital as a social institution that can influence the behavior of people who are in it. The notion of social


Epidemiology is the branch of science that studies the spread of the disease as in space and time among the population, and the factors influencing this distribution. It deals with the disease groups of people rather than individuals. In psychiatry, epidemiology seeks to answer the three main groups of questions: what is the prevalence of mental disorders in this risk group, what are the clinical and social characteristic features of syndromes or behavior, what factors may be important in the etiology? Study of the prevalence levels may be useful for planning mental health services. These obtainable

Descriptive clinical studies

Before offering the reader an overview of the more complex scientific approaches to etiology, pay attention to the intrinsic value of simple clinical studies. Such studies was built psychiatry. For example, the position that schizophrenia and affective disorders have, in all probability, have independent reasons, ultimately determined by careful descriptive studies and follow-up observations made by previous generations of psychiatrists. Here you may provide just two examples of a series of numerous clinical studies that have contributed to a significant advancement in the undoped

Behavioral model

Among the disorders that psychiatrists are intended to treat, there are those that fit into the hard medical model. These include hysteria, sexual deviations, intentional self-harm, drug and alcohol abuse, repeated acts of delinquency. Behavioral model is an alternative way to understand these disorders. According to this model the disorder explained in terms of factors determining normal behavior: motivation, reinforcement, social and cultural influences, as well as internal psychological processes, such as attitudes towards various issues, beliefs and expectations. Behavioral models

The contribution of scientific disciplines to the study of etiology of mental disorders

Among the scientific disciplines that have contributed to the knowledge of the etiology of psychiatric disorders, we can distinguish the following main groups: clinical research and epidemiology, genetics, biochemistry, pharmacology, physiology and neuropathology, experimental psychology, ethology and psychoanalysis. This section discusses (in turn) each, with the following cases: in the solution of the problems which the etiology can help the discipline, how do each discipline attempts to find an appropriate solution, whether connected with any special difficulties application of its methods to mental disorders?
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