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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (dsm)

In 1952, the American Psychiatric Association published the first edition of the Diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM-I) as an alternative to ICD-6 (which, as noted above, was heavily criticized). In DSM-I exert influence attitudes Adolf Meyer and Karl Menninger, and its simple glossary reflects the increasing popularity of psychoanalytic ideas in the United States. In 1965 he began work on the next edition (DSM-II), which were presented as ideas of psychoanalysis and krepelinovskie position. The third edition of DSM-III was published in 1980. This was preceded by a very careful preparation. Advisory committees made detailed projects received

International Classification of Diseases (ICD)

Mental illness were included in the sixth edition of the International Classification of Diseases. The first classification system for mental disorders is very much criticized. As a preparatory activities prior to the actual review and processing of said system, reviewed the classification principles in different countries (Stengel 1959), in which differences were found in a very wide range. Stengel recommended a new approach based on operational definitions and supported by a glossary, but is not associated with any of the etiological theories. The eighth edition of the International Classification

Classification in developing countries

Classification developed in Europe and North America, was not quite acceptable to developing countries, where behavioral disorders may be different. In developing countries, acute psychotic symptoms often cause particular difficulties in establishing the diagnosis, they are often atypical, and there are doubts as to whether they represent separate disease entities, or is it just a variety of syndromes observed in developed countries. Elucidation of such disputes is difficult for those unfamiliar with local conditions visiting specialists who may underestimate the impact of the important factors of culture and

Computer diagnostics

Computer diagnostics guarantees the application of the same rules in relation to each case. Computer diagnostic programs are based on the use of either a logical decision tree, or statistical models. Program, based on a decision tree, evaluates a number of positive and negative (yes / no) responses and thus consistently brings the information to the diagnosis. In some ways it resembles a differential diagnosis in clinical practice. First the procedure used Spitzer and Endicott (1968) to develop a program DIAGNO. Later Wing and his colleagues (1974) developed a program CATEGO for use together

Diagnostic criteria

Repeatedly conducted international research on the comparison of the diagnostic criteria used by different psychiatrists. For example, in the process of implementing a joint project of the Diagnostic U.S. and UK American and British psychiatrists showed footage of clinical interviews, and then asked to make a diagnosis (Cooper et al. 1972). In this New York psychiatrists compared with their colleagues in London are twice as likely diagnosed schizophrenia and therefore twice as likely diagnosis of mania and depression. Further investigation revealed that the approach is unusual for New Yorkers psychiatrists Severn


DSM-IIIR created as an intermediate system designed to offset some disadvantages DSM-III and is designed for use in carrying out a full review of the publication and development of an improved version (DSM-IV). Major categories of DSM-IIIR are presented in Table. 3.2. Among the changes that distinguish the DSM-IIIR to DSM-III, the most important are the following. 1. Multiaxial classification changed so that the V-axis now refers to the global assessment of functioning. 2. Fixed some diagnostic hierarchy adopted in DSM-III. For example, if a DSM-III by the presence of symptoms in the patient as panic disorder, and major depression diagnosis

Separate classification system

In the history of the classification of mental disorders outstanding contribution was made by the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin, who in his work was based on circumstantial clinical observation and subsequent follow-up study. In his famous textbook reprinted regularly, he clarified the differences between organic and functional psychoses, and then shared the latest on dementia praecox (later called schizophrenia) and manic-depressive illness. In European countries, the classification system still remain largely within krepelinovskoy circuit. Two major exceptions to the Scandinavian countries and France. In CK

Comparison dsm-iiir and ICD-10

These systems have several common categories. Both contain headings for disorders of childhood and adolescence, organic mental disorders, disorders associated with substance use and mood disorders. As for the differences, then one of them comes from the fact that the ICD-10 category two disorders of psychological development and mental retardation are used to refer to states that in DSM-IIIR combined under the general heading of developmental disorders (here they are coded on axis II). Other differences are due primarily to the fact that the DSM-IIIR used more discr

The validity of the classification schemes

Uncertainties in diagnosis can be reduced by using the methods described above, the non-classification scheme itself must also be reliable. Even if doctors receive adequate training and can thereby achieve a high degree of consistency in diagnosis, and still did not manage to achieve tangible effect by failing to ensure proper compliance with the diagnostic categories of disorders encountered in clinical practice. That classification was reliable, it must be consistent with the category of clinical experience (external validity). They should also provide the ability to predict the outcome of mental illness (predictive

Classification in daily practice

This issue is briefly discussed in the section devoted to the conclusion of the discharge summary (see p.56). Here it is discussed in more detail. Classification is carried out after the completion of the collection history and mental status examination. The first set are reviewing the symptoms manifested in the last month (reported by the patient or other persons providing the information), as well as signs and symptoms identified in the mental status examination. Then attempt to correlate these symptoms with one or more diagnostic categories used in the system of classification. If necessary, reference is made to determine the right and
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