General Psychology Psychiatry Psychologists Thinkers Crib

Psycology » Psychiatry and psychotherapy » Mental disorders in syphilitic lesions of the brain » Mental disorders in syphilitic lesions of the brain (brain syphilis and progressive paralysis)

Syphilitic infection is known, affects all organs and tissues, including the brain. In clinical psychiatry, traditionally there are two separate diseases: syphilis of the brain itself and paralysis (pp). Sometimes these diseases are collectively called neurosyphilis (a52.1, f02.8). Syphilis (from the name of the poem J Italian physician. FrakastoroSyphilisSiveDeMorboGallico Syphilis or the French Disease, 1530) of the brain occurs most often in 2 - 4 years after infection, it belongs to the early forms of neurosyphilis, and paralysis in the late stages. With early neurosyphilis primarily affected tissue of mesodermal origin (vessels, shell), with late (paralysis), along with these changes occur extensive dystrophic and atrophic changes neurocyte cortex.

TermLuesVenerea was introduced then. Fernely in 1554 to refer to contagious infections in the Middle Ages in France syphilis disease called Italian and French disease in Italy. Subsequently, it was noted that syphilitic psychosis developed in only 5-7% of those infected. Antibiotics to treat infections in the xx century led to a significant reduction in the incidence of syphilis in the USSR, but 1990 marked a sharp increase in the incidence increased in 3 - 4 times and the incidence of neurosyphilis.

Syphilis of the brain and paragraphs are a progressive disease and there are, as a rule, in cases of untreated or finished the cure of the disease. As a factor predisposing note brain injury and alcoholism.

Brain syphilis (lues cerebri)

Syphilis of the brain (a syphilis) specific inflammatory disease mainly affecting the blood vessels and meninges. Onset is earlier than paragraphs (four to five years after infection). Diffuse nature of brain damage corresponds to a significant polymorphism of symptoms that resembles nonspecific manifestations of vascular diseases of the brain.

Gradual onset of the disease, with the onset of symptoms characteristic of the neuroses, especially reminiscent of neurasthenia. Patients appear irritability, headaches, fatigue, reduced performance. At a special study of different forms of mental activity can be detected usually blurred their decline. The neurological study identifies expressed mild signs of stigmatization: anisocoria with sluggish reaction of pupils to light, the asymmetry of the facial muscles, the unevenness of the tendon reflexes, their increase. Unlike similar symptoms observed in the development of cerebral atherosclerosis, a disease of syphilis begins at a young age and shows a steady progression in the absence of typical symptoms of vascular disorders flicker.

Against this background, with the defeat of the meninges show signs of meningism, or the picture of a typical meningitis, which may occur acutely or chronically. In acute cases, the front act cerebral effects (dizziness, headache, vomiting), increased body temperature, typical of a stiff neck, Kernig. Characterized by cranial nerves may occur epileptiform seizures, symptoms of impaired consciousness in the form of a stunning, confusion or delirium. However, most often in the meninges

Develop a chronic inflammatory process, with the penetration of the latter in some cases and in brain tissue (chronic syphilitic meningitis and meningoencephalitis). May increase irritability, affective instability is frequently observed depressed mood.

If meningitis develops on the convex (convexital) surface of the brain, the most severe symptoms are disorders of consciousness and convulsive paroxysms, which are in the nature of Jacksonian or generalized seizures. Typical Argyll Robertson symptom does not occur at the same times. In some cases meningitis asymptomatic, the disease manifests itself only by characteristic changes in the cerebrospinal fluid.

When apoplektiformnom during syphilis of the brain characterized by frequent clinical manifestations of stroke and subsequent focal lesions of the brain tissue.

Initially, focal lesions are unstable, reversible, then they become more numerous, stable. In this perpetually extensive neurological symptoms, due to its diversity difference localization of the lesions may develop paralysis and paresis of the extremities, cranial nerves, the phenomenon agnosia, apraxia, pseudobulbar disorders. Almost all patients observed weakening pupillary reaction to light.

Apart from having a focal symptoms in patients chronically persistent headaches, dizziness, memory loss, irritability, or disforichnost slabodushie.

Some patients develop paroxysmal states with clouding of consciousness, mainly type twilight disorder. With increasing disease and worsening neurological symptoms observed dismnesticheskogo progression of dementia.

Gummy form of syphilis of the brain manifests the formation of chronic infiltrates in the brain in the form of nodes with different localization, that determines the features of the disease symptoms. Gummas may be single or multiple, small in size.

For gummy shapes characteristic signs of increased intracranial pressure, vomiting, painful headaches, weakness, and sometimes can develop conditions stupefaction, convulsive paroxysms. When examining the fundus can be observed stagnant nipples optic nerves.

Syphilitic hallucinosis Plaut refers to exogenous reaction type, since by Bonhoeffer. These manifestations may not be immediately distinguished from schizophrenia, while syphilitic Kraepelin paranoid delusional disorders characterized by a predominance. Currently, both options are grouped as hallucinatory-paranoid form of syphilis with the manifestation of feelings of deceptions and the emergence of delusions, hallucinations and then dominated, the delusional symptomatology. More common delusions of persecution or self-incrimination. Delusions are simple, connected with the immediate environment of the patient, with specific life situations.

General paralysis

Paralysis was first described as lunatics.

© 2008-2021 Psychology online.: en, es, de, fr, cz