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Psycology » Psychiatry and psychotherapy » Neurosis: Part I » Environmental Factors

It is considered that Inadequate housing Can create preconditions for the development of neurosis, either directly or through effects on family life. If this assumption is true, after the move, associated with clear improvement of living conditions, people should suffer less neuroses. Taylor and Chave (1964) examined those relocating to another city replaced the bad (and city) conditions on much better, and Hare and Shaw (1965) who (with similar results) moved to another residential area within the same city. None of these studies showed no decrease in the frequency of neuroses after the move. However, it is possible that the positive effect of improving housing conditions was nullified by the adverse effects of greater social inclusion in the new environment. The relationship between mental health and housing conditions discussed in the book edited by Freeman (1984).
Another putative cause of neurosis is the noise produced by such aircraft. The idea of ​​the existence of such a causal relationship brought by the fact that in areas close to the airport, among the inhabitants, mostly complaining about the noise, reveals a trend towards more neurotic symptoms than others. This observation may indicate that noise is able to cause neuroses, but not least, is also likely that the acute sensitivity to noise is a symptom of neurosis caused by some other reason. This problem has been the subject of several studies (Jenkins et al. 1981; Meecham, Smith 1977; Tarnopolsky et al. 1980), as conclusive evidence of consideration in this regard could not be obtained, it is doubtful that the noise turned out to be an important cause of neurosis.
There is an assumption that certain features Working conditions Contribute to the development of neurosis. This possibility has been studied extensively during the Second World War, when it was concluded that a job that requires constant attention from the person, but you can not take the initiative or to feel their responsibility (eg, repetitive execution of operations for the machine) can cause neurosis (Fraser 1947). More recent studies have shown that working on assembly lines with a given rhythm is detected more neurotic symptoms than comparable with them on a number of characteristics of the people who are able to independently control the pace of their work (Broadbent, Gath 1979; Broadbent 1981).
Taken separately, this result could be regarded as a consequence of the selective outflow of healthy people with jobs where labor is the least attractive. However, under other circumstances, it has been demonstrated that one and the same person during the period of work in a stressful environment is manifested more neurotic symptoms. Thus, the study of medical school students passing practice clinics in different departments, they found more of these symptoms just when they labored under, is regarded by them as stressful, especially if the work did not give enough satisfaction (Parkes 1982). It would be fair to conclude that stressful conditions may play a role in provoking neurosis.
In connection with the long-term unemployment is recorded more symptoms small affective disorders (Banks, Jackson 1982). There are two possible explanations: either the unemployment rate is the cause of these symptoms, or those prone to develop such symptoms, it is harder to find a job. Warr and Jackson (1985) is considered the second version implausible because, as they found the severity of symptoms soon after the loss of a job does not prejudge the duration of the subsequent period of unemployment. If unemployment is the reason for the small affective disorder, then a similar effect may be associated with loss of self-esteem, with the loss of traditional social roles, financial problems or conflicts with the strengthening and emotional disorder in the family. These factors are discussed in the next section. Overview on the relationship between employment and mental illness can be found in Smith (1985).


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