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  1. Pathology thinking
  2. Obsessive compulsive disorder
  3. Delirium
  4. Overvalued ideas

Obsessive compulsive disorder, primarily obsessive fear, described more physicians of antiquity. Hippocrates (V c. BC) led clinical illustration of such manifestations.

Physicians and philosophers of antiquity include fear (phobos) to four main passions, "from which come the disease. Chinese Zeno (336-264 BC) in his book "On the passions" defined as the expectation of fear of evil. For fear he considered as horror, shyness, shame, shock, fear, anguish. Horrified by Zeno, there is fear, numbness suggestive. Shame - the fear of dishonor. Shyness - fear of making action. Shock - fear of the unusual presentation. Fright - fear that the language is taken away. Torment - fear unclear. The main types of compulsive disorders have been described clinically already much later.

In the 30 years of the XVIII century F. Lepe (F. Leuret) described the fear of space. In 1783, Moritz (Moritz) published observations obsessive fear ill apoplexy. More detail some of the kinds of compulsive disorders are at F. Pinel in one section of his classification called "mania without delirium" (1818). B. Morel, considering these emotional disorders pathological phenomena meant their term "emotive nonsense" (1866).

R. Krafft-Ebing in 1867 coined the term "obsessive representation» (Zwangsvorstellungen); in Russia IM Balinskii proposed the concept of "compulsive" (1858), which quickly entered the lexicon of domestic psychiatry. M. Falre-son (1866) and Legrand du Soll (1875) gave a painful condition in the form of intrusive doubt with a fear of touching different subjects. Subsequently began to appear descriptions of various obsessive compulsive disorder, for which the designation is given different terms: idees fixes (fixed, entrenched ideas), obsessions (siege obsession), impulsions conscientes (conscious of desire), and others. French psychiatrists often use the term "obsession" in Germany affirmed the terms "anancasm", "anancast" (from the Greek. Ananke - goddess of fate, destiny). Kurt Schneider believed that anankastic psychopaths are more likely to have a tendency to identify obsessions (1923).

First scientific definition of obsessions gave Carl Westphal: "... Under the name should imply obsessions such representations that appear in the content of consciousness of human suffering against and contrary to his wishes, while unaffected in other respects intelligence and not being caused by a particular emotional or affective state, they are not persists, they impede the normal flow of ideas and break it, the patient with constancy recognizes them as unhealthy, the alien thoughts and resist them in their health consciousness, the content of these representations can be very challenging, often, even for the most part, it is meaningless, is not in no obvious relation to the former state of consciousness, but even to the patient it seems unclear as to who had flown him out of the air "(1877).

The essence of this definition, exhaustive, but rather cumbersome, not subsequently subjected to treatment principle, although considered controversial question of the absence of any significant role of affects and emotions in causing obsessive-compulsive disorders. VP Osipov just this thesis K. Westphal considered not quite accurate, but nevertheless noted that the opinion of V. Griesinger and other competent scholars differed from what K. Westphal. Ozeretskovsky DS (1950), who studied the problem thoroughly enough, defined as pathological compulsive thoughts, memories, doubts, fears, desire, action, arising independently and against the wishes of patients, though irresistibly and with more consistency. Subsequently A. B. Snezhnevsky (1983) gave a clear indication of obsessions or compulsive disorders.

The essence of obsessions is forced, violent, irresistible occurs in patients thoughts, ideas, memories, doubts, fears, aspirations, actions, movements in the knowledge of their pain, the presence of a critical attitude toward them and deal with them.

In clinical practice, obsessive compulsive disorder are divided into those that are not associated with affective experiences ("abstract", "abstract", "indifferent") and affective, sensuously painted (AB Snezhnevsky, 1983). In the first group of "neutral" with respect to the affect compulsive disorders earlier than other common phenomena described "obsessive philosophizing." Author of their separation is W. Griesinger (1845), and gave a special designation such phenomenon - Grubelsucht. The term "obsessive sophistication" (or "fruitless sophistication") W. Griesinger prompted one of his patients, who always thought of not having any of various objects and values ​​believed that he develops the "sophistication completely empty character." P. Janet (1903) called this disorder "ruminations" and L. du Soll - "bubblegum soul" (1875).

VP Osipov (1923) resulted in striking examples of this kind of obsessive disorders as continuously emerging issues, "why the earth moves in a certain direction, and not the opposite? What would have happened if she had spun in the opposite direction? Just people would live or otherwise? They would not have been different? How would they look like? Why is this four-scrap? If he had three floors, it would be living in the same people, it would belong to the same owner? Would he be the same color? He stood on the same street? "Korsakov (1901) refers to a clinical example, which led Legrand du Soll.

"The patient, 24 years old, well-known actress, musician, intelligent, very punctual, enjoys an excellent reputation. When she is on the street, she is persecuted these kinds of thoughts: Do not drop anyone from the window of my feet? Will it be a man or a woman? Do not hurt yourself this man, if not kill to death? If hurt himself, then hurt himself head first or feet? Whether the blood on the sidewalk? If he will be killed immediately before his death, as I know? Should I will call for help, or run, or say a prayer, a prayer read what? Do not accuse me of this misfortune, do not leave me whether my students? Will I be able to prove my innocence? All these thoughts crowd possession of her mind and her strong concern.

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