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Psycology » Psychiatry and psychotherapy » Biological bases of mental pathology » Etiology and pathogenesis of mental disorders

  1. Etiology and pathogenesis of mental disorders
  2. Genetics of mental illness
  3. Biochemistry psychoses

The essence of psychosis to date have not been fully elucidated. In XX century, due to the success of genetics, molecular genetics, neuroimmunology, neurochemistry, physiology, ie, the entire complex of Neurosciences, many mechanisms for the development of conditions such as depression, anxiety, fear, excitement, have become clearer; opportunity accurate DNA diagnosing a number of diseases (Huntington's chorea, Down syndrome, mental retardation other differentiated). Such a "breakthrough" in science has become especially noticeable in the last decade of XX century, which has been designated by WHO as "the decade of the brain." By the beginning of the XXI century was decoded the human genome, and scientists got their hands on a "genetic anatomy." This allows you to look to the future with optimism psychiatry, as it acquires the status of an "exact science." In this regard, it is advisable to submit a tutorial of the most important fundamental scientific biological data relevant to psychiatry.

Psychiatrist working in the clinic, in the study of case histories of patients consistently indicates the presence of different factors influencing the psyche that are involved in the development of the pathological process. P. Yu Moebius (1893) first proposed to divide all the causes of psychosis to external (exogenous) and internal (endogenous). In accordance with this dichotomy themselves mental diseases classified into exogenous and endogenous.

Among endogenous causes disease of particular importance are genetic factors, developmental disorders at an early age, somatic diseases that impede and impair brain function due to ischemia, autointoxication, endocrinopathy.

Exogenous factors mainly classified into two groups. The first group includes organic brain damaging effects - such as trauma, intoxication, infection, radiation damage. The second group includes the impact of emotional stress as a result of inside - personal or interpersonal conflicts, a variety of adverse environmental, negative social influences on personality. A special role is played by the personality features, especially those that define the individual reactions.

In practical Psychiatry well known that exogenous and endogenous factors often appear together, while in some cases endogenous prevails, and in others - exogenous radical. For example, the toxic effects of alcohol may be manifested in different ways. In some cases, this may be an exogenous factor trigger endogenous process (schizophrenia), in other cases, it is typical exogenous psychosis, which may have different clinical shades, creating sometimes shizoformnye picture. This fact is taken into account in the diagnosis of the underlying disease. The main causative factor of mental illness should be considered as the one that defines the picture debut and celebrated throughout the disease process, emphasizing particularly its dynamics, a picture of remission and the initial state. In some cases there is evidence of external trigger disease factor, which subsequently loses its role and is not critical in the formation of psychopathological structure of the underlying disease. These factors are seen as provocative. Difference causal mechanisms of psychosis well exemplified in the development of "axial" ("axial" by A. Goch) syndromes - such as exogenous organic underlying exogenous organic diseases; endogenous symptom, the underlying process of endogenous diseases (schizophrenia); syndrome development individual underlying decompensation psychopathy (personality disorder). Personality characteristics largely determine the risk of mental illness (risk factors). In each case, the doctor considers and analyzes the role of all the factors leading to the emergence of psychosis, establishes the main causal mechanism that plays a crucial role in establishing a definitive diagnosis of the disease.


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