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Psycology » Psychiatry and psychotherapy » Speech pathology » Pathology speech (aphasia)

Under aphasia (from the Greek. Well - denial, phasis - speech) refers to a speech disorder characterized by the complete or partial loss of the ability to understand someone else's speech or use words and phrases to express their thoughts. The appearance of aphasia due to lesions of the cortex of the dominant hemisphere of the brain in the absence of articulation disorders and hearing apparatus.

In practice are the following common forms of aphasia.

Aphemia manifest violation of the ability to name objects while still allowing them to characterize. If the patient suggest the initial syllable or letter, he can remember the right word.

Motor aphasia (Broca's aphasia) manifests itself in violation of active speech while maintaining the understanding of oral and written speech. Isolated cortical, subcortical and transcortical motor aphasia.

Sensory aphasia manifested loss of ability to understand speech while maintaining active speech.

Cortical sensory aphasia (Wernicke's aphasia, verbal deafness) - Aphasia with a secondary violation of expressive speech (logoreya, verbal paraphasias). Observed in the localization of the lesion in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus cortex of the dominant hemisphere of the brain.

Subcortical sensory aphasia manifests itself in violation of understanding speech and the inability to repetition of said patient letter word dictation at safety of expressive speech and writing, and reading comprehension. Occurs in lesions of the white matter of the brain directly under the sensory speech area of ​​the dominant hemisphere of the brain.

Transcortical sensory aphasia manifest violation of understanding speech while maintaining the possibility of repetition said another person. Observed in lesions of pathways between the posterior and middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) and other areas of the cerebral cortex.

Mixed aphasia characterized by a combination of individual manifestation of motor and sensory aphasia.

Total aphasia - A combination of motor and sensory aphasia, the loss of speech in all its manifestations. Observed mainly in acute cerebral circulatory disorders.

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