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  1. Neurosis: neurasthenia
  2. Hysterical neurosis
  3. Obsessional neurosis (obsessive-phobic neurosis)
  4. Diagnosis and treatment of neurosis

Neurosis - functional (reversible) mental disorder caused by exposure to stressful factors while preserving awareness of the disease and correct reflection of the real world.

The term "neurosis" and first decrypts it gave William Cullen (1769, 1777), which is described as such by all mental disorders, including those who currently belong to the neuroses (hysteria, anxiety, hypochondria, mild cases of melancholia ).

In domestic psychiatry are three main types of neurosis: neurasthenia, Hysterical neurosis, obsessional neurosis. Diagnoses "hypochondriac neurosis" and "depressive neurosis" is not currently placed as the phenomenon of somatization and affective disorder can be detected at any neurosis. For these same reasons, do not use the terms "gastric neurosis", "cardiac neurosis", etc.

Neurasthenia: symptoms and signs

The symptoms of this neurosis diverse, but some of them are obligate, which can be observed in all patients in the advanced stage of the disease.

First appear vegetative disorders, they are the first signal overload neuro-psychiatric. Here, first of all be noted hyperpathia phenomena that contribute to the painting "irritable weakness." Even with a small disturbance or mild exertion tachycardia occurs in patients with a feeling of palpitations, sweating, cold extremities, sleep disappears, decreased appetite. Hyperesthesia in some analyzers can be combined with other hypoesthesia. Hyperpathia sometimes expressed so dramatically that patients suffering from ordinary activities stimuli: eye sensitivity reaches such severity that the patients can not tolerate the impact of even a conventional, scattered light, they have to close the window curtains to get rid of pains in the eyes. The same applies to the phenomena of hyperacusis, hyperosmia etc. May develop acute hunger, headache, which is described as compressing, squeezing "hoop". Pain increases with excitement during mental stress (fatigue signal at Krasnushkin EK).

In the next stage of the disease appear different sensorimotor disorders, increased sensitivity to the sensation of the internal organs. Patients can not tolerate temperature changes, their shivering in cold weather, with the heat they sharply increased sweating. There is a strong feeling of tinnitus, they feel the heart, stomach, intestines. Such sensations cause hypochondriac mood, more forced "to listen to him," the circle of hypochondriacal complaints can expand. Patient becomes difficult to perform minor subtle movements, save the monotonous pose any expectation becomes painful for them. Next join affective disorders. Insignificant event brings them to tears, they quickly feel hurt and annoyed, though can quickly calm down and blame themselves for incontinence. Well-being characterized by extreme instability affect the predominance of low mood with a dissatisfaction (but without sadness). In the morning, more often feel bad for the people they are a bit "straighten" may feel better, but tired quickly and previous symptoms of instability back again.

When you try to perform the previous load conditions amplify autonomic dysfunction, sensory-motor and affective disorders. May show difficulties in intellectual activity (hard to read, learn the material of lectures in the learning process, etc.). Patients can not for a long time to focus on anything important, begin to think of something else ("associative mentism"). They can be broken memory on abstract concepts due to difficulties fixing the attention. Connect with your friends for a while distracting, then begins to annoy and irritate.

With long-term course of the disease neurasthenia, symptoms often extended, example can be fixed hysterical reactions of neurotic character. There are two variants of neurasthenia neurosis depletion caused by congestion are significant, and reactive neurasthenia, arising due to the impact of stressful factors. In addition, isolated and hyposthenic giperstenicheskom neurasthenia, although correct to consider these forms as stages in the development of the disease. For hypersthenic form is more characteristic irritability, increased sensitivity to external influences, attention deficits. When hyposthenic form predominates fatigue, lethargy, loss of earning capacity. For neurasthenia may be unfavorable due to delayed joining other neurotic symptoms (some obsessive doubts, fears, etc.).

This neurosis is described in detail for the first time an American neurologist George Beard (1869, 1880), who coined the term "neurasthenia", using the term "neurosis" W. Cullen and "fatigue" of his pupil J. Browne (1790). J. Byrd called neurasthenia disease, symptoms of which vstrechayutsya often in modern inhabitant of American society, "American neurosis." Among the 50 symptoms of the disease as the main author singled out the physical and mental exhaustion (weakness), coupled with irritability (irritable weakness), headache and insomnia. In Etiopatogenetichesky aspect J. Beard emphasized the importance for the development of excessive physical illness and, most importantly, mental surge that leads to a "nervous bankruptcy," because under such circumstances to the nervous system requirements exceed the level of its resources. J. Byrd saw neurasthenia specific reflection of American life conditions with the atmosphere of the struggle for existence, the desire for enrichment at any price in the face of fierce competition. This dramatically drains stamina, since not everyone, according to J. Byrd is a "millionaire nervous energy." After J. Byrd neurasthenia was described by J.

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