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Psycology » Psychiatry and psychotherapy » Schizophrenia » Schizophrenia: Introduction

  1. Schizophrenia: Introduction
  2. Schizophrenia: signs and symptoms
  3. Schizophrenia: course and form of the disease
  4. Schizophrenia: etiology and pathogenesis
  5. Schizophrenia: differential diagnosis
  6. Schizophrenia: the treatment of disease

Schizophrenia (from the Greek. Schizo - splitting, phren - mind, soul) progressive (a progressive) endogenous mental illness, which is characterized by the loss of the unity of mental function, impaired thinking, poor emotional sphere ("the immobility of emotions" by E. Bleuler) and increasing weakening of mental activity ("weakening energy psychic life", according to SS Korsakov, "falling energy potential," according to Carl Conrad). In addition to these major symptoms, the absence of which diagnosis is questionable, manifest and "additional": obsessive compulsive disorder, senestopatii, hysterical, hypochondriacal symptoms, delusions, hallucinatory, psevdogallyutsinatornye disorder, depressive, manic, catatonic, oneyroidno-catatonic manifestations. "Additional symptoms" as they are called E. Bleuler, may or may not be, while the main symptoms are required. Memory and knowledge acquired previously saved, so that the actual intelligence in schizophrenia does not suffer.

The ICD-10 schizophrenia is encrypted under the rubric of F2. This mental illness as an independent nosological form was allocated in 1896 by the famous German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin called "dementia praecox» (Dementia praecox). A long-term observation of the various patients who developed acute psychosis with delusional picture, hallucinatory-delusional disorders, amentia, confusion, acute depressive or manic delusional delusional disorder, catatonia, he noted that the final stage of the disease in 10 - 15 - 20 years are characterized by a common property - the impoverishment of the whole mental life of patients, loss of interest in life, common poglupeniem (Verbl? dung). This "fatal outcome" in dementia in quite young people Kraepelin believed the main property of the disease, hence the name "dementia praecox." The term "schizophrenia" was proposed in 1911 by a major Swiss psychiatrist E. Bleuler, he believed that schizophrenia - a group of diseases of endogenous origin that combines common psychological feature - a complete splitting of the psyche, the loss of the unity between thought processes, emotions, affects the decline in activity.

Schizophrenia - the most common mental illness according to WHO the number of patients with schizophrenia worldwide is 0.77 - 0.8% of the entire cohort of mentally ill, registered to a mental hospital, patients with schizophrenia are approximately 20% (data KERBIKOVA OV). At a young age (16 to 28 years develop predominantly male, and since 40 years an increasing proportion of cases among women. Some researchers have noted a tendency to a slight increase in the incidence, however, must also be considered that the registration increasing number of individuals with schizophrenia may be related insufficiently clear diagnosis. This contributed to a certain extent that E. Bleuler himself expanded the boundaries of the disease, with an emphasis on psychological factors of developing symptoms of the disease. This position is supported by a number of researchers, describes a similar "latent" schizophrenia E. Bleuler "soft" form (A. S. Kronfeld Goldenberg, AM Rosenstein, BN Friedman et al.) in domestic classical psychiatry, since SS Korsakov, who described "diznoyyu" as a type of schizophrenia, and VH Kandinsky, highlight "ideofreniyu" earlier descriptions of Kraepelin and Bleuler E. prevailed clinical approach EVIDENCE progressive course of the disease and focus on specific violations of mandatory diagnostic thinking.


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