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Psycology » Psychiatry and psychotherapy » Psychophysiologically-oriented model of psychosomatic disorders » Conditioned reflex (conditioning) and cognitive models

Among these models are both well-known theoretical schemes:

conditioned reflex theory in the form of the classical model (I. P.Pavlov)

cortico-visceral theory of the formation of internal diseases (K. M.Bykov,

I. T.Kurtsin), which served as the evolution of the previous;

And newer models:

imprinting (K. Lorenz)

learned helplessness (Seligman M.).

Classical conditioned reflex model and cortico-visceral theory

In the 20-30s. The twentieth century. in the works of his students and P.Pavlova was established physiological model of the internal psychological conflict. In animal studies it was found that the development of somatic disorders resulting collision of reflexive processes and otherwise - simultaneous activation using the same conditioned stimulus conflicting unconditioned reflexes - such as food and defensive. Thus, according to this model, based on psychosomatic disorders in humans is also collision of conditioned reflexes, simulating a situation of uncertainty, logically containing insoluble contradictions. Another physiological mechanism of psychological breakdowns - pathological formation of conditioned reflexes. For example, bronchospasm in patients with bronchial asthma, arising not by inhalation of allergen, but only when an image of the object, which plays its role (for example, plants with a strong smell). Practical application of this theory became conditioned reflex therapy, then there is a fix or extra extinction of conditioned reflexes by their collision with unconditional. (One of the first areas in which this method was applied - in the 30-ies. - Has become the treatment of alcoholism through the formation of conditioned reflex vomiting reaction to I. F.Sluchevskomu).

Application of the Pavlovian conditioned reflex theory to the clinic was cortico-visceral theory M.Bykova K. and I. T.Kurtsina (50-ies.) Explaining the origin of the internal (in fact, psychosomatic) diseases as follows: cerebral cortex may directly affect the condition of internal organs (the mechanism of conditioned reflexes) and, accordingly, the immediate cause of psychosomatic illness is a disorder of the dynamics of physiological processes (the balance of excitation and inhibition) at the level of the cerebral cortex. Based on these ideas, was proposed nonspecific treatment of internal diseases with the help of protective inhibition (long artificial sleep).

From the perspective of body-oriented psychocorrection awareness of bodily sensations associated with a particular internal organ, and study of these sensations helps to normalize the functional state of the body. The basis obtained similarly positive effect is apparently achieving a full functioning cortico-cortical interactions, ie harmonization activity and somatosensory cortical areas viscerosensory and frontal regions. Thus similar psihokorektsionnye art can also be seen as a practical application of cortico-visceral theory.

In addition to the original, shareware schematic concepts I. P.Pavlova, subsequent work physiologists his school led to the concept of the conditioned reflex as the union of unconditioned reflexes, each of which corresponds to a simple linear scheme is not the reflex arc, and a multi-storey, presented at various levels of the central nervous system (Asratyan A., 1981). Hence, it is understood that a human reflexes can be formed as a conscious and unconscious level. This means that one and the same reflex may be at different levels. Important to practice psycho consequence of this theoretical model is that on the lower floors of the reflex chain - by subcortical, subconscious level - the reflex act may be carried out independently, without the knowledge and consent of the superior - cortical, conscious level. Besides, it happens faster as less activated instances. (As usual in a multilevel, hierarchical management system tops cumbersome and inert. They learn about what happened in the last turn and only then pretend that all the positive developments taking place thanks to their intervention and negative - despite their disapproval). And typically occurs first simple (habitual, automatic) conditioned reflex act, and only then there is his awareness.

These schematic representations are directly applicable to the mechanisms of emotions, which are reflexes that operate on an unconscious level. More precisely, automatically, unconsciously turns on the first link of the chain complex reflex emotional reaction; affordable same awareness emotion becomes at a later stage. To understand this mechanism, it is necessary to recall the theory of the origin of emotions on the James-Lange, according to which emotional reaction begins with reflex changes in the state of the muscles and internal organs. More precisely, the first emotional reaction occurs at the level of the subconscious part of the brain - the cortex of the right hemisphere of the brain and limbic-reticular system. After it is the turn of vegetative support, that is caused by emotional tension in the muscles, heart palpitations and breathing (the awareness of emotions which emphasized William James), changes in the status of other internal organs (which draws priority Lange). Later, when these physiological changes are recognized conscious part of the brain, there is actually a human, conscious emotion.

In other words, initially we react to the situation around us subconsciously. This can occur either quickly, in just a tenth of a second or naprotivo, stretched in time, when the emotion remains hidden for a long time, implicitly matures. At this stage there are initial emotionally-induced changes in the condition of the muscles and internal organs. And only after we recognize these physiological sensations, sending them to the attention, we are aware of our feelings. (If the attention is not focused on this, the emotions create some background, defining the functional state of man, his health and mood).

Stereotypes of emotional response in standard situations are conditioned reflex reaction that formed mainly in early childhood.

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