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Psycology » Psychiatry and psychotherapy » Pathology perception » Hallucinations

  1. Pathology perception
  2. Hallucinations
  3. Hallucinosis
  4. Illusions

Scientific understanding and definition of hallucinations happened in the historical development of the study of this problem in psychiatry. Original, everyday meaning of the word «allucinacio» in Latin corresponds to concepts such as "mindless chatter", "pipe dream", "empty nonsense." During the Renaissance in France Fernely J. applied the term "hallucination" in "Pathology" of his treatise "The Universal Medicine" (1554), which described an eye disease. He explained: the Greeks called hallucination term «parorhasis», which means impaired vision. By J. Fernely, hallucinations observed in painful corneal staining in lemon yellow or she becomes red, inflamed. Obviously, domestic, utilitarian understanding of the word "hallucination" gradually begins to accept the scientific meaning, denoting a painful disorder. Later Swiss physician F. Plater (1625) wrote about the hallucinations: "Insanity, or a hallucination, which is also called by the Greeks« paraphrosine », is that people imagine things that are not, or about things that are obvious, reunite perverted judgment and remember everything bad in general or any single thing, and disorders are described in their thoughts, speech or in action. " Hence it is clear that the author has identified the concept of "hallucination" with the term "insanity in general." Also in the Renaissance P. Zakkias (1624) in his book "Forensic Issues", highlighting class "melancholy", it lists the following varieties: "hypochondriacal melancholy partial delirium", "hypochondria without delirium," "hallucinations without delirium." Here for the first time the term "hallucination" is separated from the "rave" as an independent phenomenon.

In the future, researchers gave various definitions of hallucinations. For example, Linnaeus (1763) in his book "Childbirth diseases" shared these phenomena at the hearing, which he outlined in Greek syringmos, and visual - Phantasma, the very same term "hallucination" he tried.

Finally, Jean Etienne Dominique Eskirol in his "Manual of Psychiatry" (1838) to finalize the scientific concept of "hallucination": "A person who has a deep belief in the presence of him at the moment of perception (sensation), while there is no external object within reach of his senses, is in a state of hallucination - is a visionary "(from the French. visionnair - dreamer dreamer). This definition is found full compliance signifier and signified, moreover, it is a matter of personality gallyutsinanta that enables systemic understanding of this clinical phenomenon in which there is a disturbance in the area of ​​perception, and the presence of a persistent belief in the mistaken judgment.

Briefly summarized, the hallucination - it perception without an object (B. Ballou, 1881), or imaginary perception.

Osipov (1923) believes that the hallucination is not a simple idea, is not only a memory of something past, as memories are not sensual color that put them to the power of perception of real objects or sounds. That is why the hallucination may be defined as the perception of sensory attributes ideas (Briere de Boismont, 1862) - more precisely, ideas, notions with his sensual features.

You can also say that hallucination is the perception of non-existent at the moment in the face of a real object hallucinating.

Korsakov (1901) defined as a representation of hallucinations, coupled with feelings corresponding to such subjects, which are in fact at this moment do not impress on the human senses. Often cited as a pretty good definition of K. Goldstein (1880): "Hallucination have sensory experience of the past without a perception corresponding external stimulus." Essentially the same as observed VP Osipov, all definitions of hallucinations - only the variants of the definition given by J. Eskirolem. Historically division hallucinations on the senses to which they correspond. Even in the first work Bayyarzhe J. (1846), dedicated to this subject, hallucinations divided into auditory, visual, gustatory, olfactory, tactile (haptic), or hallucinations skin feeling, hallucinations muscle sense, as well as visceral, which are characterized by imaginary sensations in internal bodies.

Visual hallucinations may have elementary nature - a vision of light, sparks, do not conform to external stimuli of light and color sensations do not have a specific shape (flash, color spots). Such disorders are referred to as photopsias, they occur more frequently in organic pathology (eg, escorted aura in patients with epilepsy).

With typical visual hallucinations patient seen are any specific figures, faces or real scenes. It can be various animals, insects, people familiar and completely unfamiliar. Such visions sometimes static, immobile, but may be moving. Sometimes hallucinatory images are awesome character. Their size - very different: can be very small (microscopic) or, conversely, very large (macroscopic).

Brightness and unusual hallucinatory experiences are reflected in the literature. Here is the description visual hallucination in a poem by Edgar Allan Poe "Black Crow":

Only ... I looked outside as the window Raven pryanul.

Ancient Raven - shows he lived countless years.

Soared on the bookcase smoothly and he sprawled there great power,

Clearly not testing any embarrassment or shame,

If so always sat ...

I sat in silence bound, look bewitched birds,

Chudilas me in this view unquenchable enmity ...

Sometimes hallucinates not seen the whole human figures, and only certain parts, such as large heads, fearful eyes, chipped pieces of body parts, blood, etc.

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