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The causes of schizophrenia: neurologic abnormalities

Schizophrenic patients, clinicians often show signs of minor neurological disorders. However, it is possible that some of these symptoms are a manifestation of the corresponding neurological disease accidentally coincided with schizophrenia, but they may also reflect a causal process. The focus in research are mainly the following: non-local (soft) neurological signs, the possible anomalies of the corpus callosum and cerebellum; data on the expansion of the ventricles; neuropathology. All four of these areas will be discussed in turn below. Soft recognition


When neuropathological investigations, attempts to answer the question of whether the associated structural changes in the brain (localized or diffuse) with a certain kind of mental disorder. In the past there have been many studies on the brain autopsicheskih patients who suffered from schizophrenia or affective disorders. Since no changes were not found, it has been suggested that these mental disorders are caused by impaired function rather than structure (hence the term functional psychosis is sometimes used as a collective name for these states). Neurosurgeons

The causes of schizophrenia: other constitutional factors

Perinatal factors has been suggested that the etiology of schizophrenia may be important factors operating in the perinatal period. There is indirect evidence to support this view, derived from studies in which the task was to find out: does the likelihood of developing schizophrenia from complications during childbirth, as well as on what the bill were these birth mother and what time of year there. Study of these three types showed the following factors. On the essential role of factors such as birth complications, evidenced by the fact that in retrospective studies in the history of patients with schizophrenia

Hypersomnia: narcolepsy

Narcolepsy usually begins between 10 and 20 years, although it could be sooner. In middle age and later it occurs rarely. Narcolepsy is more common among men. Cataplexy (sudden brief episodes of paralysis, loss of muscle tone) is observed in most cases, but sleep paralysis (in the Russian literature as cataplexy, sleep and waking. Ed.) And hypnagogic hallucinations observed in only one quarter of patients. Cataplexy can begin simultaneously with narcolepsy or some time later, she rarely precedes sleep disorders. About a third of patients have a family

Treatment of depressive disorders

This section focuses on the effectiveness of various forms of treatment. Details regarding drug therapy and ECT are given in Sec. 17, to be addressed before reading this section. Recommendations on the choice of treatment and daily care of patients are given in the section devoted to the management of patients. Antidepressants having great importance to the Medical Research Council (Clinical Psychiatry Committee 1965) compared the therapeutic effect of imipramine, phenelzine, and placebo ECT 250 patients suffering from moderate to severe depression. By the end of the first four weeks of ECT was the most effective treatment of the four pa

Treatment of Schizophrenia: ECT

In the treatment of schizophrenia traditional indications for ECT are catatonic stupor and severe depressive symptoms that accompany schizophrenia. Effect of ECT in most cases comes quickly, and this procedure gives impressive results in both these states. When other forms of ECT in schizophrenia is now rarely used, although, according to some, it gives a quick effect in acute (Taylor, Fleminger 1980).

Treatment of Schizophrenia: working with relatives

Controlled studies of intensive family therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia conducted bit. All of them were devoted to the study of short-term interventions during the acute stage of the disease, and all the findings suggest that the benefits at the same time is negligible (see: Mosher, Keith 1980). The results obtained in the study of emotional expressions, as mentioned above (see p.229) show that for the family members of schizophrenics should prove useful tips and expert advice, particularly aimed at addressing specific problems. It is also advisable to provide advice to families in pract

Addison's disease

When adrenal insufficiency often have psychiatric symptoms such as autism, apathy, fatigue and mood disorders that occur in the early stages. In this regard, Addison's disease can be misdiagnosed as dementia. Thomas More Adtsison first describing this disease in 1868, said that for him the typical memory disorder. Subsequent observations have confirmed that, for example, reported that the group of patients during the examination of memory impairment were found in three-quarters of them (Michael, Gibbons 1963). Crises in Addison's disease are accompanied by acute organic psychopathological features

Intracranial infections: brain abscess

Brain abscess may occur acutely and clearly headache, seizures, papilledema and focal symptoms. On the other hand, it can develop gradually, without pronounced symptoms, and then it is easy to be mistaken for a mental disorder. Extremely important that the psychiatrist was constantly vigilant and responsive to such a possibility. For example, you should always think about the diagnosis of brain abscess, when depressive symptoms accompanied by mild fever and confusion, especially if the patient while all looks sick. In such cases a symptom such as disc edema spectators


If typically observed hyperparathyroidism psychopathological symptoms associated apparently with a high level of calcium in the blood (Petersen 1968). Particularly frequent symptoms such as depression, irritability and anergy. Violated as cognitive processes. Acute organic psychopathological syndrome can develop as a component of parathyroid crisis. Cases where the psychiatric symptoms are the first manifestations of the disease are relatively rare, but in retrospect, many patients report that over the years have experienced Mild anergy and depressed mood before they showed some sim
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