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Psycology » Psychiatry and psychotherapy » Pathology perception » Pathology perception

  1. Pathology perception
  2. Hallucinations
  3. Hallucinosis
  4. Illusions

Perception is a complex system of processes of reception and transformation of information that allows the body to realize the function of reflection of objective reality and orientation in the world. Together with a sense of perception synthesizes starting way learning process, supplying the appropriate body sensual material. Perception in the process somehow mediated activity of thinking and tested by practice.

Of the many stimuli acting on the body, is perceived only part. This depends on the physiological features of the structure of the brain and from prior experience. Person does not perceive passively whatever affects his senses. He sees everything that corresponds to its installation, interest, leaving the background, or the exclusion of all else. Perception, unlike the feeling, no doubt, includes a centrifugal (fugalny) and is an active ingredient, which is confirmed by the semantics of the term. The basis of perception really is, as you know, set of isolated sensations. However, this process only applies to the analysis of objects and phenomena that have no ties with previous experience, completely new to the subject alien to him, requiring research. Likewise, a similar process of perception is linked to socio-historical and individual experience, is a holistic process of recognition and learning objects and phenomena, and this is determined by the perception of further details of individual parts of the object. The concept of structure in relation to the process of perception should speak not only referring to the anatomy of the brain certain devices, but also as a specific functional principle.

Here especially to be reckoned with lesions or pathological interest area interparietalnoy furrows relevant to the synthesis of sensations, which belong to different senses. Several researchers have shown that with the defeat of the zone observed pathological phenomena included in the concept of "metamorphopsia" when distorted form of perceived objects, in addition, there may be disorder "body schema" when the patient, for example, it seems that his head or body increases and occupy an entire room, etc. Gurevich showed (1949) that these disorders cerebral devices studied by neurologists have meaning in psychiatry clinic.

The representatives of the "Gestalt psychology" surrounding always perceived as a unity having foreground and background. In line with this idea of ​​psychology develops K. Goldstein (1880), the binding activity of the frontal lobes with the ability to allocate substantial delimit "the shape of the main background." Although the methods of "Gestalt psychology" does not fully meet all the requirements of a universal method of explanation of mental phenomena, this structural principle in itself noteworthy.

Mechanism of perception depends on the proper function of the receptors (sense organs) and analyzers (central authorities), consisting of a series of transformers (ganglia), by means of which the energy received from the external world, is transformed into a substrate for the perception of mental function, this mechanism also depends on the states of consciousness and attention and, moreover, from the social experience. Of particular importance are abnormalities in the central mechanisms of perception, especially if there is not a complete loss of function, but only pathological changes leading to a distortion of sensory experience and the so-called deceptions of the senses, which are the major psychopathological disorders associated with impaired in this area.


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