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Psycology » Psychiatry and psychotherapy » Pathology perception » Illusions

  1. Pathology perception
  2. Hallucinations
  3. Hallucinosis
  4. Illusions

Illusions Eskirol J. (1838) identified, unlike hallucinations as garbled, incorrect, false perception of reality. Causes distortion of perception is not always rooted in painful properties of the perceiver, they also can be in the special properties of the environment, and physiological characteristics of the human body, being in certain cases required for each. Like hallucinations, illusions differ senses, in which they are identified. Under the terms of their share on the physical, physiological and mental (Sally J., 1881). Present as an artistic illustration of different illusions passage from Goethe ballad "King of the Forest."

Who Rides who races under Frigid haze?

Rider belated young son with him.

To my father, all izdrognuv, baby clung;

Hugging, holding him and warm man.

"Child, what are you to me timidly clung?" -

"Dear one, the elf king in my eyes flashed:

He's in a dark crown, with a full beard. "

"Oh no, it is white mist over the water."

"Child, look, baby, to me;

Merry much in my side:

Colour turquoise, pearl jet;

Palaces of gold fused mine! "

"Dear one, the king of the forest with me says:

He gold, pearls and promises joy. " -

"Oh, no, my baby, you heard right:

That wind woke up suddenly into the sheets ... "

To physical illusions include such conditions of which are in the physical properties of the environment (such as mirages caused by reflection in air media objects and places that are a far cry; stick, dropped into the water, it seems due to the difference of the coefficients of refraction refraction of light in air and water and etc.).

To physiological illusions perceptions are caused by various stimuli is not their corresponding peripheral devices senses responding to these stimuli in a specific way. This, for example, light phenomena, developing with the eyes closed, especially when pressing on the eyeballs, "flickering sparks" in the eyes, light phenomena during stimulation of the optic nerves of electric shock, inflammation. Such perception is illusory and healthy and mentally ill people. According to A. Pick, a source of illusory phenomena can serve the mentally ill in entoptic perception of their own circulation, developing in some pathological conditions. Physiological illusions are numerous examples of so-called visual illusions Mueller-Lier. This geometric-optical illusions based on the fact that the visual apparatus is necessary when evaluating the magnitude and relationships identical figures to spend a different amount of muscular work, as compared shapes and lines stocked with a range of foreign appendages, from which we can not turn away, and thereby arrive at to the wrong "illusory" conclusion.

Mental (pathological) illusion are caused by psychological reasons, is in violation of the activities of attention, memory, sensual tone, clarity associative process. Mental illusions insane are special pathological. They are conventionally divided into affective, verbal and pareydolii.

Affective illusions arise against fear or anxiety and depressed mood. In such a state, for example, hanging heavy drapes are perceived as some frightening images lurking enemies tree stump taken for a robber, fog - for the appearance of the holy image (E. Bleuler, 1920).

Verbal illusion is the false perception of a real conversation surrounding content. In the comments, questions and advice on extraneous topics patient hears accusations in his address, imaginary reproach, ridicule. In the presence of fear in such cases say about affective verbal illusions.

Pareydolii (Suggested name Jaspers in 1913) - a special illusory phenomenon when a sufficiently lively imagination patients really seems to exist in reality images, such as spots on the wall, carpet pattern, perceived illusory and moreover, thanks to fantasy, complemented by details that there is nothing like in real life - they see animals, birds, different scenery with mountains, rivers, valleys, paintings of battles, etc.

Phenomena of this kind have been observed in Leonardo da Vinci. Quite naturally, they increasingly found the artists and all individuals with a strong visual imagination.

Psychosensory disorders and "body schema". This pathology is also referred to violations of perception. According to Gurevich (1949), psychosensory disorders are the result of violations of sensory fusion, resulting in distortions arise challenging perceptions of the external world and his own body with preservation of all sensations received directly by the senses.

Perception coming from different senses are material for the synthesis of sensory related to higher-order functions, they are called psychosensory.

Features psychosensory functions consist in the fact that such arrangements are not directly connected to the periphery of the projection paths (as in elementary perceptions) and are formed by the integration, processing more simple synthetic receptor function, with the emergence of new quality, which can not be derived from the properties of the components included in the composition of the new features. For example, the synthetic function of perception of space is formed by the integration of different receptors: optical, haptic (relating to the general sense), proprioceptive and vestibular mechanisms. New quality of this complex psychosensory function can not be inferred from the properties of the individual components of these (vestibular function, etc.).

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