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Psycology » Psychiatry and psychotherapy » Epilepsy » Diagnosis of epilepsy

  1. Disease epilepsy
  2. Symptoms of epilepsy, seizure
  3. Epileptic psychosis
  4. Personality changes in epilepsy
  5. Etiology and Causes of epilepsy
  6. Diagnosis of epilepsy
  7. Epilepsy Treatment

For accurate diagnosis of epilepsy produce a full medical examination which includes gathering information about the patient's life, the development of the disease and, most importantly, a very detailed description of epilepsy, as well as conditions prior to them, by the patient and witnessed the attacks. If the attacks are having a child, the doctor will be interested in the course of pregnancy and childbirth the mother.

Obligatory in general and neurological examination, electroencephalography. The special neurological research applies nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography.

Electroencephalography (EEG)

EEG - it's completely harmless and painless study. To perform this test are applied to the head and fixed her with a rubber helmet small electrodes. The electrodes are connected by wires to the electroencephalograph which amplifies 100 thousand times obtained electrical signals are brain cells, stores them on paper or in a computer enters indications.

Patient during the study lies - or sitting in a comfortable chair diagnostic, being relaxed, with eyes closed. Usually when removing EEG conducted so-called functional tests (photic stimulation and hyperventilation), representing a provocative stress on the brain via a bright flashing light and enhanced respiratory activity.

Hyperventilation test

It is a frequent and deep breathing for 1-3 minutes. Hyperventilation is expressed metabolic changes in brain tissue due to the intensive breeding of carbon dioxide (alkalosis), which, in turn, contribute to the emergence of epileptic activity on EEG in people with seizures. Hyperventilation during EEG recording reveals hidden epileptic changes and clarify the nature of epileptic seizures.

EEG with photostimulation

This trial is based on the fact that the light flickering in some people with epilepsy can cause seizures. During EEG recording before the eyes of the subject patient rhythmically (10-20 times per second) flashes a bright light. Identification of epileptic activity during photic stimulation (photosensitive epileptic activity) allows the doctor to choose the correct treatment strategy

Differential diagnosis epilepsy conducted with organic brain diseases for which there may be epileptic or epileptiform seizures. Here we must consider the possibility of bulk processes (tumors, hematomas, echinococcosis), the presence of vascular lesions of the brain, atrophic disease, the presence of dementia, Alzheimer's type, also requires exclusion of infectious CNS lesions (syphilis, AIDS).

In addition, the differential diagnosis of epilepsy epileptic reactions. These include febrile convulsions in children, intoxication, including drugs, as well as withdrawal syndromes (alcohol, barbiturate, etc.).

In some cases it may be necessary differentiation with hysterical paroxysms, and sometimes (in the presence of delusional psychosis) with schizophrenia. The presence of typical epileptic seizures or their equivalents, as well as highly specific properties of epileptic personality, is a sure sign of epilepsy.

In the event of a sudden loss of consciousness with convulsions physician must distinguish epileptic seizures from such life-threatening conditions such as heart failure and the state of asphyxia. When an epileptic fit are often seen as urination and cyanosis. Cause asphyxia in patients with epilepsy may be aspiration during a seizure or a piece of vomit artificial jaw. Such patients require timely special assistance.

When epileptiform states can always install their true origin from a serious head injury or signs of syphilis. If seizures or other paroxysmal manifestations develop during the current infectious disease, it is, of course, the evidence is against true epilepsy. But sometimes there are difficulties in the diagnosis is considerable, for example traumatic epilepsy eventually getting closer to true. Here, of course, have a value of clinical history, laboratory and paraclinical investigations.


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