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  • Psychopathy (personality disorders)
  • Types of psychopaths
  • Dynamics and treatment of psychopathy

Psychopathy relate to borderline mental disorders, they occupy a position between the personality accentuation (individual characterological disorders, well compensated, leading to impairment of behavior only in short periods associated with trauma decompensation) and progressive mental illness. In our country, in the diagnosis of psychopathy used clinical criteria established by PB Gannushkina: personal strain stability, the totality of psychopathic personality traits in violation of all mental warehouse and severity of pathological character traits to an extent that leads to disruption of social adaptation. According to PB Gannushkina, "no neurosis without psychopathy", ie neurosis is essentially the only decompensation psychopathy (eg, hysterical neurosis there decompensation hysterical psychopathy). But not everyone shares this view. For example, VA Giljarovsky believes that under certain (stress) conditions can develop neurosis and mentally stable, healthy person, but in most cases the position of PB Gannushkina is clinically accurate.

Classification of psychopathy

For the classification of psychopathy can be used a variety of approaches. For nuclear (constitutional) psychopathy include types due mainly hereditary diseases. By boundary (OV Kerbikov, 1960), which was designated as patoharakterologicheskoe development options include psychopathy, due primarily improper upbringing.

In Russia for a long time described personality types in accordance with the theory of IP Pavlov's ratio of excitation and inhibition in the cortex. In accordance with this notion circle isolated excitable and inhibitable psychopathy. Excitability include explosive, epileptic, paranoid, hysterical, unstable, gipertimnye psychopaths. To be slowing - psychasthenic, anankastnyh, asthenic psychopaths of sensitive schizoid. The most common classification of psychopathy based on the clinical description of their types, which may correspond to an external manifestation of an underlying mental illness. E. Kretschmer (1921) is the character resembling schizophrenia as schizoid, and those that resemble circular psychosis as cycloid. PB Gannushkin singled epileptic and paranoid psychopaths. Thus, the initial division of Browne (1790) for all diseases and asthenic sthenic in accordance with the presence of fatigue or wall has undergone a transformation due to the update of more complex characteristics of the individual anomalies.

Yet in practice, the work of the psychiatrist some types of psychopaths are more common, such as psychopathic personality asthenic warehouse (corresponding dependent personality disorder according to ICD-10 code F60.7).

Schizoid personality disorder

Schizoid personality disorder is characterized by insularity, the predominance of the inner life (autism, according to E. Bleuler). People belonging to this type, prefer to be alone, they do not have an active desire to communicate, they prefer reading, nature, contemplative life, devoid of spontaneity. By E. Kretschmer, in people diagnosed with schizoid personality disorder are found special, psihesteticheskaya proportion in the structure of personality traits with a combination of over-sensitivity (hypersensitivity) and emotional coldness (anesthesia). Depending on the prevalence or giperesteticheskih anesteticheskih elements are two types of interconnected series of transitional options. Sensitive schizoid - giperestetichnye with a predominance of asthenic radical, while expansive schizoid - cold, indifferent until dullness with a predominance stenichnosti, hyperactivity.

Sensitive schizoid - Is a person with "sverhnezhnoy" (by E. Kretschmer) internal organization, morbidly sensitive, mimozopodobnye. They long experience remarks in his address, any, even small, resentment, it is difficult to get rid of the memories of long ago I heard of rudeness. These are people with a wary attitude towards everything that surrounds them, deep feelings, their terms of attachments is limited. "Island" of their experiences is always directed at themselves, which can reach a degree of self-torture. Despite the modesty, dreaminess, easy fatigability, lack of inclination to the rapid manifestation of emotions, they are morbidly sensitive. TN Yudin believes sthenic affect manifests itself in them as special pride: "I forgive all others, but do not forgive myself." They discover a unilateral recess in the work with great care and thoroughness, often limited to a narrow range of daily duties. Under the influence of their traumatic circumstances, due, for example, various ethical conflicts, they can easily lose their composure, become depressed, lethargic, they reinforced isolation from others, there may be unstable sensitive ideas relationship with exacerbation of incredulity.

Expansive schizoid determined, not prone to doubt and vibrations they have little considered with other views, dry and official relations with others. Demanding integrity in communication combined them with complete indifference to the fate of people. All this makes them difficult character, even "nasty" when expressed arrogance coldness, inability to empathize, callousness and even cruelty. At the same time they are highly vulnerable, cleverly concealed dissatisfaction and self-doubt. Often, expansive schizoid manifest explosive reaction, angry outbursts, impulsive behavior as a response to serious life difficulties. In more severe cases may cause the near-paranoid reactions, with an inherent distrust manifested katotimnymi delusional experiences. Expansive schizoid, according to SA Sukhanov, very close to the type which he described under the name of "resonant character." Thus there is a tendency to kind of arguments at every opportunity and uncomfortable way.

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