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Psycology » Psychiatry and psychotherapy » Classification in psychiatry » Separate classification system

In the history of the classification of mental disorders outstanding contribution was made by the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin, who in his work was based on circumstantial clinical observation and subsequent follow-up study. In his famous textbook reprinted regularly, he clarified the differences between organic and functional psychoses, and then shared the latest on dementia praecox (later called schizophrenia) and manic-depressive illness. In European countries, the classification system still remain largely within krepelinovskoy circuit. Two major exceptions to the Scandinavian countries and France. In Scandinavia, attaches great importance to the concept of psychogenic or reactive psychoses, in which, as it is believed there are paranoid, depressive symptoms or confusion, and sometimes a combination of both (see: Stromgren 1985; Cooper 1986).
In French psychiatry classification is based on a combination of elements of psychopathology and existential philosophy (see: Pichot 1984). Certain diagnostic categories in France differ from those in other European countries and in North America. In particular, it introduced two special categories. This is, firstly, BouffeeDelirante suddenly starting state of delirium with a sense of the type of trance, long lasting and has a good prognosis. Although this condition can develop in schizophrenia, it is clearly separated from acute schizophrenia and acute manic-depressive illness (see Chap. 9). Secondly, such a category is allocated as DeliresChroniques (Chronic delirium), which include the state, which would be classified according to ICD as chronic delusional disorders, they are separated from schizophrenia, which in France is diagnosed only when there is some indication that the degradation of the individual. Chronic delirium (DeliresChroniques) Subdivided into unfocused, that affects several areas of mental activity, and focused with only a subject of delirium. The latter type includes several states, such as erotomania those described in Ch. 10.
In the 1920-1930-ies views on psychiatric classification ruling in America, sharply disagreed with the established in Europe. Psychoanalysis and the teachings of Adolf manner (Meyer) oriented American psychiatry at the prevailing interest rather to the uniqueness of each of the individuals than to their common features. At the same time diagnostic concepts are increasingly and increasingly based on hypothetical mechanisms psychodynamics. Recently related to psychiatric classification in the United States largely changed. The first important step was the introduction of strict criteria for the classification of research activities, as described above (Feighner et al. 1972). This was followed by a serious work that led to the new American system DSM-III.


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