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Psycology » Psychiatry and psychotherapy

Social environment and course of the disease

According to the background culture of contemporary international study, the incidence of schizophrenia in different countries is almost the same, but its course and outcome are different. During a 12-year follow-up study of 90 patients conducted in Mauritius (Murphy, Raman 1971) observed a more favorable outcome than marked Brown et al. (1966) in the United Kingdom. Among patients Mauritian higher proportion of those who were able to leave the hospital and return to a normal lifestyle. According catamnesis, nearly two-thirds of the patients were classified as socially independent (with symptoms of schizophrenia they were absent) compared all lish

List of issues

The list of problems is a useful complement to the conclusion epikriza in cases related to the solution of complex social problems. Thanks to this list easier to get a clear idea of ​​what you can do to help this patient, and easier to control the execution of tasks. Technique of using a list of issues can be illustrated by two examples. The first list (see table below) could be made for a young married woman who in a fit of despair, influenced by minute pulse took slightly higher dose of the drug and that there is no mental disorder or articulated by p

The impact of education

We must consider two deviations from the normal pattern of education: separation from parents and abnormal behavior of parents. In 1944 Bowlby on the basis of uncontrolled retrospective study, the object of which 44 were young offender, suggested that separation from the mother at an early age leads eventually to the formation of personality, characterized by antisocial behavior and inability to form close relationships. Later, these ideas were further developed in the book, which had a significant impact Forty-four young thief (Bowlby 1946). This work has stimulated many studies on direct and d

Causes of mood disorders: physique and personality

Kretschmer put forward the idea that people with endomorph physique (stocky, thick, rounded body shape) are particularly prone to affective disorders (Kretschmer 1936). But later in the studies using objective measurement methods failed to identify a stable connection of this kind (von Zerssen 1976). Kraepelin suggested that people with cyclothymic personality type (ie, with constantly repeated for a long time, mood swings) more likely to develop manic-depressive disorder (Kraepelin 1921). It was subsequently reported that such a connection, apparently, is more pronounced in bipolar disorder

Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism)

As noted by Cushing in his original description, in this disease emotional disorder is a common phenomenon. Subsequently, Michael and Gibbons (1963) also found emotional distress in about half of the cases studied. On Cushing's disease usually pay attention because of somatic symptoms and signs, and any mental disorders almost always seen as a complication of the already known, previously identified cases. Somatic symptoms include moon face, buffalo hump, purple striae on the thighs and abdomen, hirsutism and hypertension. Women usually amenorrhea, and men with Cushing's syndrome often impotence

Role of the family in the occurrence of schizophrenia

There are two theories about the family as a cause of schizophrenia: one of them considers to be a major factor in the rejection of role relationships, other abnormalities in communication in the family (see: Liem 1980). The special role of the family in terms of its effect on the course of schizophrenia will be discussed later (see p.228). Deviations in role relationships schizophrenic mother concept was proposed in 1948 by the analyst Fromm-Reichmann. When comparing mothers of schizophrenics and mothers of subjects suffering from neuroses, and mothers of healthy people (control group) Alanen (1958, 1970) found that mothers of schizophrenics significantly more psychological abnormalities. He suggested that these

Syndrome Gilles de Tourette yes

This condition was first described by Itard (Itard) in 1825, followed by Gilles de la Tourette (Gilles de la Tourette) in 1895. The main clinical features of this disease starting at the age of 16 multiple motor tics in conjunction with voice ticks in which the patient involuntarily vocalizes type grunts, growls, etc. About half of these patients have coprolalia (uttering obscene words and phrases) rarer echolalia. In some cases, there are also stereotyped movements such as jumping and pritantsovyvanie. Tics usually precede other manifestations (Corbett et al. 1969). Related symptoms include hyperactivity

Treatment of manic patients

First of all decide on the need for hospitalization. In virtually all cases, except for the lungs, it is desirable to place the patient in the hospital to protect him from the consequences of their own behavior. Patients in whom the disorder is not too heavy, it is generally agreed to go to hospital, to convince them of the wisdom of this step is usually easy. A more serious condition may need to involuntary hospitalization. When emergency treatment is usually prescribed neuroleptics. In most cases, haloperidol selected as the most suitable drug for this purpose; chlorpromazine is an alternative if


Tiki is purposeless, stereotyped and repetitive jerky movements, most exciting muscles of the face and neck. They are much more common among children than among adults, although sometimes tics appear in adulthood (40 years). In most cases, the disease begins around the age of seven, often against a background of emotional distress. Particularly susceptible ticks boys. Usually the patient is any one type of abnormal movements, but also found a combination of several types (multiple tics). Like almost all other involuntary movements, tics increase with excitement. Within a short time ticks can

Spasmodic torticollis

When this rare disease observed repetitive purposeless movements of the head and neck, or persistent unnatural their position, or both. When this (unlike ticks) always present signs of muscle spasm. The disease usually begins between the ages of 30 to 50 years. It can occur in various ways, but in most cases progresses slowly over many years. It remains unclear whether the reasons organic disease, mental or should speak about a combination of both (see: Lishman 1987; Martin 1982 review of the evidence on this issue). Effective treatment is available. There are different approaches to psychotherapy surgically
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