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Psycology » Psychiatry and psychotherapy » Psychophysiologically-oriented model of psychosomatic disorders » Deficit satisfaction

Another physiological model of psychosomatic and psychological disorders is actually deficiency syndrome satisfaction by K. Blum (reward deiciency), considered by Western authors as a scourge of modern society.

This model was developed on the basis of known experiments Olds and Milner with self-stimulation animals introduced into the brain through electrodes. These authors have found that if the electrode is placed in a number of deep subcortical structures, called centers meet, the experimental animal continuously carries out their self-stimulation, not reacting to any external stimuli. Irritation of the structures described initially leads to the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin, which then initiate the release of substances that stimulate the pleasure centers of the brain - the so-called endogenous opiates, or endorphins (endomorphin). Same release of endogenous opiates is accompanied by intense experience of positive emotional state. (Probably the first in the life of an extremely intense release of endorphins occurs in infants at birth - the nervous system thereby protected from stress and physical pain. Therefore subsequently similar physiological bright flash endorphin euphoria subconsciously may be associated with regression states).

Thus, animal studies have demonstrated that the neurophysiological mechanism, which naturally is the basis of a sense of satisfaction. Relation to the same person, the release of endogenous opiates - mediators happiness - creates a sense of physical well-being, a sense of satisfaction (up to a degree of bliss), emotional elation (reaching up to euphoria). The disadvantage of endogenous opiates causes anxiety and depression. Under the influence of various factors associated with unnatural (environmentally unfriendly, non-physiological) way of modern life, this biochemical mechanism is loosened. Biological pendulum starts to swing between its extreme positions - satisfaction and discomfort - frequently and with greater amplitude. As a result, the person starts to feel it keenly moments of discomfort and try to shift the pendulum more towards satisfaction neurotransmitter whose resources are slowly being depleted. Striving to eliminate anxiety and depression arising unconsciously leads a person to attempt to fill the underlying emotional discomfort biochemical deficiency:

A) using psychoactive substances, which leads to disruption of drives, to a variety of dependencies (alcohol, drugs, smoking), and depending on the food - the desire to consume digestible carbohydrates, which leads to overeating.

B) Conduct risk-taking, whether compulsive gambling (gambling), or many so-called extreme sports (risk to life).

B) Increased aggressiveness, including leading to antisocial behavior.

Described as a consequence of emotional imbalances are a variety of psychosomatic disorders arising in the anxious-depressive background.

How, then, should work described physiological mechanism in health and how it relates to human psychological functioning? Recall that according to the biological theory of emotions (P. K.Anohin), based on their appearance is the mechanism of the so-called acceptor action, to carry out planning and monitoring of the behavior of these plans (based on feedback). The control is made by comparing the two images generated by the brain: the desired (model expected results) and valid (reflection of reality, correlating with it). When the coincidence of the ideal and real images having positive emotions when passing - negative. Thus, the biological meaning of positive emotions is a reward for the correct, biologically expedient behavior, in other words - the satisfaction of achieving the goal. This creates a short but intense burst of positive emotions.

On a psychological level there experience points meet, the fullness of life and awareness of its sense of fullness, moments of happiness. Physiologically described as positive emotional states are associated with an altered state of consciousness, the activation of the frontal region of the left hemisphere on the background of the synchronization of both hemispheres. The basis of such a state of mind - though, like other state changes - is the physiological age regression, background baby brain state (remember the expression rejoice as children, that is experiencing positive emotions directly and honestly as possible, making them bright and full of experience.) Synchrony of the left and right hemispheres of the mechanism described reflects the comparison of two models of reality - the ideal (left hemisphere image) and real (right hemisphere image). Their coincidence - the flash of insight, left-brain awareness.

When excess same dominance of the left hemisphere, the suppression of the right hemisphere of such moments of synchronicity simply do not appear. As a result, a person begins to feel less and less satisfied with what is happening in his life. Eventually own measured and quiet existence, organized and planned to the last detail, he begins to present more mundane and bleak, gray humdrum, emasculated and unemotional. Seeking a way out of the impasse emotional person and tries to resort to such means of the previously mentioned release repressed emotions, like alcohol and drugs, aggressive and destructive behavior, including self-injurious behavior.

To prevent such an outcome, and it is necessary to use methods of psychological self, allowing a person to regularly experience the natural and positive ASC activate natural physiological mechanisms pleasure. (Kind of close to a similar approach and the so-called psychotherapy creative expression by M. E.Burno helping the person to feel satisfaction with life through moments of creativity.) Is shown in this plan as deep muscle relaxation. It is particularly useful in that it directly leads to the release of substances with anti-stress, or stress-limiting effect (F. Z.Meerson) - mentioned endorphins.


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