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Plato (428 or 427-348 or 347 BC BC)

Plato (428 or 427-348 or 347 BC BC)

Greek philosopher, founder of Platonism. Disciple of Socrates, Athens founded the philosophical school. Writings of Plato - highly dialogues, the most important of them: "Apology of Socrates", "Phaedo", "Feast", "Phaedrus" (doctrine of ideas), "State", "Tee tete" (theory of knowledge ), "Parmenides" and "sophist" (dialectic categories), "Timaeus" (natural philosophy).

Aristotle (384-322 BC BC)

Aristotle (384-322 BC BC)

Greek philosopher. Studied Plato in Athens in 335 BC. Oe. founded the Lyceum, or peripatetichekuyu school. Tutor of Alexander the Great. Works of Aristotle cover all branches of knowledge at that time. Founder of formal logic, the creator of syllogistic. "First Philosophy" (later called metaphysics) contains teachings on the basic principles of life. Vacillated between materialism and idealism. Major works: logical set of "Organon" ("Categories", "On the interpretation", "analysts" 1st and 2nd, "Topeka"), "Metaphysics", "Physics", " , On the origin of the animals, "" On the Soul "," ethics "," Politics "," Rhetoric "," Politics ". Aristotle was born in Stagira, a Greek colony located on the northwest coast of the Aegean Sea. Detached from Hellas Stageira and its neighboring policies (sovereign city-state, which included the adjoining land) surrounded by Illyrian and Thracian tribes, who were then still in the tribal stage of social development. Aristotle's father, Nicomachus, was court physician to Amyntas III, king of Macedon; Nicomachus came from a family of doctors. He was the first teacher of Aristotle, and gave him his knowledge in the natural sciences and medicine. Aristotle spent his childhood at the court, dealing with his peers - Amyntas son Philip, the Macedonian king future. Subsequently, Aristotle was the tutor of his son - Alexander the Great.

Chuang Tzu (Chuang Chou) (Oak 369-286 BC BC)

Chuang Tzu (Chuang Chou) (Oak 369-286 BC BC)

Chinese philosopher, a follower of Lao Tzu, whose teachings expounded in poetic form. According to Chuang Tzu, Tao can only be achieved through direct experience rather than theoretical and speculative reasoning. Ideal - the "true man", that is those who, following the Tao, energetic and independent. Treatise "Zhuangzi" is written in the form of parables, stories and dialogues and directed against the teachings of Confucius and Mozi.

Epicurus (341-270 BC BC)

Epicurus (341-270 BC BC)

Greek philosopher. From the year 306 BC. e - Athens, founded the philosophical school. Philosophy shared by physics (the study of nature), canon (theory of knowledge) and ethics.

Lucius Annaeus Seneca (4 BC Oak E - 65)

Lucius Annaeus Seneca (4 BC Oak E - 65)

Roman philosopher, poet and statesman, one of the leading representatives of Stoicism; tutor of Nero, Nero subsequently sentenced to death. Philosophical works, "Oh mercy," "On goodness", "Studies of Nature", "Serenity", "On the leisure", "On a happy life", "On Thanksgiving," " About providence "," Moral letters to Lutsiliyu ».

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