General Psychology Psychiatry Psychologists Thinkers Crib

Psycology » Persons » Psychologists » Vasily Davydov

Vasily Davydov was born August 31, 1930 In 1948 he graduated from the school for working youth and entered the Moscow State University Department of Psychology at the Faculty of Philosophy. While there he taught psychology PY Halperin, after a while a student and teacher friends.

During graduate school, VV Davydov was an ardent follower of the theory of the gradual formation of mental actions created PY Halperin. At the time he spoke with troublemakers in Soviet philosophy: philosophers EV Ilyenkov, AA Zinoviev, VI Korovikov. For this reason, after graduation, he was not left to work at MSU, and AR Luria gave his editor at the magazine "Reports of the USSR Academy of Pedagogical Sciences." After a while AA Smirnov invited him to work in the Institute of Psychology, where VV Davydov and worked all his life. Around the same time, VV Davydov approaches with DB Elkonin, and they begin to work together in one of the Moscow schools.

In the early stages of his work VV Davydov proposed to abandon the term "development" (psyche) in applying it to the individual. He thought it possible to use only the term "formation" of the mind of the individual. This means mastering, mastering, the acquisition of its public nature, as contained in the special products substantive work of previous generations of people, the formation of the actual human activities, in particular its control mechanisms - the psyche.

All forms and methods of human activity, including individual and his activity, needs, desires, and inclinations are the result of assigning socio given and in some sense normative samples of this activity. According to VV Davydov, public institutions somehow determine the nature of the formation of the individual "in his own image and likeness." Consequently, the term "development" can be attributed to the society as a whole and not to the individual. Becoming same individual psyche - it is not development, and formation.

In 1966 he published the book "Value concepts of" building "and" development "of the mind", which outlined the basic concepts of the theory. In addition, VV Davydov revealed her as his psychological and educational program to transform the whole of primary education. He believed that it is necessary to change the principle of construction of subjects, so that their assimilation was both of the capability of genuine thinking. You need to build all disciplines so that they were used from the beginning the most general concepts. In the course of further education teacher with students outputs of general concepts private characteristics of objects. Thus, according to VV Davydov, movement from general to specific gradually forms a child to possess the ability to fully abstract thinking.

In support of his theory, he led the empirical material obtained in a number of experimental classes of primary school. In addition to experimental, were also so-called audit classes, which were going to the same data used by VV Davydov to create the most vivid picture.

In 1972 he published a monograph VV Davydova "Types of generalization in learning," in which a scientist has analyzed the concept of LS Vygotsky, noting its strengths and weaknesses. On the whole, the book was devoted to the development concept as a way of problem activity forming the nuclear structure of the activity content of education. To construct such a structure is necessary to ways of working that for VV Davydova identify the device concepts were subject to student development. In this theory, a way of doing business can be represented as an objective of a dedicated structure, all elements of which are sequentially executed child.

In 1978 was published an article about the problem of mental development, written by VV Davydov together with AK Markova. This work has become an indicator of perceived in the work of the scientist transition from one concept to another. Name PY Halperin it barely mentioned, and the term "development" as applied to the formation of the individual is not forced out of "formation", and got its own importance.

In this article, Davydov treated "formation" as a form of mental development and refused approval the identity of these two concepts. Under development scientist understand patterns of qualitative changes in the level and form of activity of the individual, social in nature. In addition to theoretical calculations, the article cited and empirical data revealing the path of development of thinking, not only in primary school children, but also teenagers.

By the end of 1970. VV Davydov gradually moving from theory PY Halperin's position on cultural-historical conception LS Vygotsky. But if the general psychological scientist views changed its goal has remained unchanged. Based on the already cultural-historical theory, Davydov worked on the development of educational programs. This program was created in conjunction with them Elkonin. The basis of this theory were three closely related concepts - learning activities, theoretical thinking and reflection. The most difficult point in its development was the right balance of theoretical and empirical thinking used in the learning process.

In the 1996 book "Theory of developmental education," in which he outlined the theory of child development, reviewed with the highest positions of the problem - from the standpoint of the subject of this development. Stakeholder producing new material or spiritual product, according to VV Davydov is the personality, and the production of such a product - creativity. Under the act of creation Davydov understand the real transformation of objective reality, culture and himself, as a result of this perception of the notion of creativity and creative attitude to life it is intellectualized, ie directly related to the subject of intellectual disabilities.

Person, according to the scientist, - the main subject of creative activity, but not the only one.

© 2008-2019 Psychology online.: en, es, de, fr, cz