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Psycology » Persons » Psychologists » Grotto Nicolai Yakovlevich

Nikolai Yakovlevich Groth (born in 1852) was the great-grandson Russianised Dutch pastor and son of the Russian academician and philosopher After graduating in 1875, the historical-philological faculty of St. Petersburg University with a gold medal N.Ya. Grotto went abroad, where he was an intern at philosophy, psychology and science.

After his return in 1876 he was elected an extraordinary professor Nezhinsky Institute of History and Philology. Working in this Institute, Grotto published his first work on the psychology of "On dreams as a subject of scientific analysis."

1879-1980 gg. dedicated scientist creation and protection of the master's thesis, "The Psychology of feelings in its history and major foundations," which consisted of two parts. In the first part of N. Groth reviewed the history of analysis and synthesis of views on the feeling in the second were placed the results of his own theoretical research. He analyzed and compared the original works of European scholars, noting the new that made the development of the ideas under consideration by each of them

As a result, NY Groth leads his own theory of feeling. In his view, psychology should not rely on the physiology and biology as a general science. From the definition of life and development can bring understanding of mental life and mental development, as well as the natural distribution of the elements of mental activity.

All internal manifestations of this activity - psychic phenomena that in its dynamics can be likened to physical processes. That is why psychic phenomena available scientific study. Therefore, we need to consider these phenomena as an element of mental activity and how Fazis one continuous physical process. They are seen in condensations and individual actions of the whole organism in connection with sensations. Thus, there is a common "turnover" of mental activity, consisting of a number into each other private speed. Their elements coincide with Fazis moments as a mental process.

Thus, all mental activity can be represented as a system consisting of the points of the original and complicated mental phenomena. As moments of mental process are objective susceptibility subjective susceptibility, subjective and objective activity. Original psychic phenomena H J. Groth called sensation, feeling, desire and movement Finally, under the complicated psychic phenomena he understood ideas and concepts, feelings, desires and actions and deeds.

In his dissertation Grotto emphasized their differences psychology of feelings from all previous theories. The main psychological concepts he introduced "activity" and determined opposition of the will as aspirations, desires and activities in the form of actions and movements.

After defending his master's thesis NY Groth went to Europe, in Tuebingen, where he began work on his doctoral thesis already. He completed and published it in Leipzig, and in spring 1883 in Kiev defended. Defense went great, the work was a huge success, and the students carried the Grotto from the courtroom on the hands.

His doctoral thesis was on the reform of logic as the science of the laws of thought and knowledge. Scientist conducted his analysis with general scientific positions and positions of the theory of mental interactions, which he himself developed. The basic theory of cognitive activity N.Ya. Grotto put the idea of ​​"mental turnover."

He suggested that there are several types of revolutions, including the right (containing all four points of the mental process), irregular (comprise only a portion of them), uniform (no predominance of one over the other points), uneven, private (internal sensations begin with) common (start with external sensations), simple, compound (composed of simple, specific and general), passive (conditioned by the dominant influence of the environment on the body) and actual (conditioned by the dominant influence of the organism to the environment).

As a visual demonstration of the method turns N. Groth used flowcharts, one of the first in Russia to use the graphical method in psychology. With the help of a circle of the ideal type, he portrayed a simple, regular and uniform rotation. In theory, NY Grotto such traffic is closed on Wednesday as the movement of the subject cause changes in the environment, the newly perceived by the subject.

Also in his doctoral thesis presented scholar evolutionary theory of mental processes, created on the basis of activities telnostnogo approach. According to his theory, mental processes - an internal moment of mental processes, which consists of cognitive activity. Each NY Grotto singled peripheral movement that provides informative subject material and the primary movement directed to the expression of mental acquisitions. Last mediated intellectual movements, thus giving rise to some products. They correspond to a definite stage of development of thinking and cognitive activity.

Continuous process of mental development and has 4 stages: unconscious, conscious, arbitrary and methodical. Each of these stages has 3 stages - preparatory, primary and secondary. These stages are continuously transformed into each other, coexist with lower degrees higher. Thus, N.Ya. Grotto came to the conclusion that the unconscious, conscious and self-development are interrelated in the psyche.

Development of the mind, according to the Grotto, to be interpreted as the evolution of consciousness in the broadest sense. Neurophysical processes are thus lower, and the processes of self-consciousness - the highest level of consciousness development

Intellectual phenomena are elements of self-awareness and objectified through speech, which is born and develops together with self-consciousness. Development of consciousness involves the development of arbitrariness in the mental life and behavior of the individual.

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