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Psycology » Persons » Psychologists » Vvedenskii Nicholas E.

Nicholas E. Vvedenskii born April 16, 1852 in the village Kochkovo Vologda. His father - the village priest - taught him to read and taught him the basics about general education studies. In 1862, Nikolai Vvedenskii enrolled in Vologda religious school, where he studied for six years.

In 1868 he entered the seminary in Vologda, where, along with religious subjects also studied philosophy, psychology and logic.

In 1872 N.E.Vvedensky enrolled at St. Petersburg University's law faculty, but in October of the same year he moved to the natural history department of physics and mathematics faculty. In addition to studying, NE Vvedenskii actively involved in social and political life of the country, was a member of the populist movement in 1874, he was arrested on charges of revolutionary propaganda among the peasants and the next three years, while the investigation was conducted, held in solitary confinement. During the trial, NE Vvedenskii was acquitted in 1878 and restored in the university.

Shortly before that, the chair of physiology at St. Petersburg University headed IM Section. NE Vvedenskii interested in his lectures and began to work in the physiological laboratory He began studying the inner essence of inhibition and its relationship with excitement. He began to develop the theory of excitable response of the various formations on the stimulus environment.

In 1979, NE Vvedenskii graduated from St. Petersburg University, and for two years he worked as a laboratory assistant at the University zootomicheskom office, at the same time continuing his research in the laboratory of Sechenov. During this time he made several trips abroad, where he studied the physiological features of laboratories.

In 1881 he won a seat in the lab, where he began to research the rhythmic oscillations in the nervous system. Immediately NE Vvedenskii encountered problems exact method applicable to developments After searching, he chose to be an instrument that would be able to catch the very rapid oscillations of the nervous process, telephone. Although the first such attempts by other researchers have failed, NE Vedenskiy managed to perfect this technique and achieve significant results. These experiments became the prototype of the application in the physiology of modern electrical appliances, allowing catch minimal fluctuations biocurrents body.

Scholar taught at the university, I read a variety of courses, and in 1883 he headed the department of physiology at the University for Women.

In 1884, NE Vvedenskii defended his master's thesis on "Telephonic research in muscle and nerve apparatus." In this work he provided the first experimental evidence of rhythmic processes obtained by telephone. He determined that the nerve, muscle and nerve center each have their own, distinct from other rhythm. Moreover, he found that in contrast to other parts of a living organism is virtually tireless nerve, it can several hours to perform their functions - irritated and authority to carry out agitation.

In 1887 NE Vvedenskii defended his thesis for a doctorate in zoology, comparative anatomy and physiology. This thesis was devoted to the development of such phenomenon as braking and related tetanus

If the nerve passes into the muscle flow often successive excitations, she responds with a solid long-term decline, which is called tetanus. While the nerve stimulation is transmitted or until the weary muscle, this condition continues. NE Vvedenskii showed that a sufficiently strong and frequent rhythmic stimulation of the nerve muscle first meets the usual tetanic contraction, which was soon replaced by relaxation. The reason for this is inhibition arising in the nerve endings from too strong excitations. With a decrease in the severity and frequency of stimulation instantly restored old picture that shows a lack of fatigue.

In addition, NE Vvedenskii showed that long-term reduction is not due to the fact that the mechanical excitation pulses overlap, as follows from their interaction and mutual influence, he denied this at the time adopted the theory of Helmholtz.

In 1888 he moved to Moscow Sechenov and recommended N.E Vvedenskogo into place A year later NE Vvedenskii was elected extraordinary professor and head of the physiology laboratory

In the study of patterns of rhythmic activity of various excitable structures (nerves, muscles, nerve centers) N.E Vvedenskii found that they have different rhythms reproduce stimuli a result, he formulated the concept of functional mobility as an essential property of excitable formations. According N.E Vvedenskogo this property will determine the ability of this excitable education within certain limits flexibly respond to changes in the frequency of stimulation Hence, each characterized by the formation of excitable limit excitation rhythm and limit the duration of the excitation wave

NE Vvedenskii found that this property varies from exposure to various external and internal factors. On this basis he derived the law relative functional mobility. The meaning of this law is that the amount of functional mobility can only be relative, expressing the excitable state of education at the moment

A huge amount of experimental data obtained in the laboratory, allowed N.E Vedenskiy establish that the effect of various physical and chemical stimuli always ends kind of brake condition. At the same cloth as excited to stop responding to the stimulus is a state of inhibition he called parabiosis.

Details are researched this condition, NE Vvedenskii defined the essence of parabiotic According to him, if the stimulus will work for a long time and constantly increase the rhythm, the nervous tissue occurs state of arousal, which will be a long and growing. In its development, this state passes through three stages' egalitarian, paradoxical and braking, the dimensions of which depend on the nature of the stimulus.

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