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Well-known Russian philosopher, psychologist and educator Paul Petrovich Blonsky was born on 14 (26) May 1884 in Kiev, in the family of a petty official. In 1902 he enrolled in the Faculty of History and Philology of Kiev University, from which he graduated in 1907, receiving a gold medal for his work "The problem of reality in Berkeley."

Blonsky student years coincided with the rise of the revolutionary and the first revolution in Russia. Joining the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, he has been arrested three times and imprisoned. Subsequently, in June 1917, he left its ranks. His scientific career began Blonsky at the department of psychology and philosophy of the University of Kiev. Here a decisive influence on him lecture professors of philosophy AN Gilyarova and Chelpanov.

AN Gilyarov lectured on ancient philosophy; special experience for Blonsky made dam theory, which became his favorite thinker. Philosophical concept Dam Blonsky chosen as the theme of a thesis.

Blonsky protect thesis failed because after the October Revolution academic titles were canceled. His book, which is reflected almost all his work on his master's thesis, "The Philosophy of Plotinus," published in 1918

Meeting with Mr. And Chelpanov strongly affected the fate Blonsky - it was under his leadership, he became involved in psychological seminars. Chelpanov contributed to his move from Kiev to Moscow, where Blonsky became his postgraduate student at Moscow University. But later Blonsky, who insisted that psychology should be rebuilt on the basis of Marxism, separated from his teacher.

Income Blonsky after the October Revolution was extremely difficult: science practically gave livelihood. Therefore Blonsky was forced to move to practical work as a teacher, that in some way give the necessary means of subsistence, and he had to teach not only psychology, but also pedagogy. Pedagogy for Blonsky was a new subject, he had to make his own syllabus to include psychology and philosophy, teaching these subjects in the most accessible form.

In 1922, Blonsky was invited NK Krupskaya Scientific-pedagogical section of the Academic Council of the State to participate in the development of curricula for the school. This work has had a great influence on Blonsky, was largely determined by the evolution of his views towards Marxism.

During the Civil War Blonsky actively worked: then were written by his works such as "Labor School" (1919), "Reform of Science" (1920), "An Essay on Scientific Psychology" (1921).

From 1918 to 1930 came just over a hundred of his works. Among them, the first Soviet textbooks for middle and high school. His articles have appeared in the United States and Germany. In 1920 he published his book "The reform of science." It has become clear evidence of rapid development period of Soviet philosophy and psychology. She was full of the spirit of total rejection of inert trends in science, many, in the words of Blonsky, "atavism thought."

Categorically denying philosophical idealism, Blonsky recognized the related idealistic psychology "mythological science" and called for its fundamental reorganization. At this time in Soviet psychology pales into insignificance speculative philosophical psychology, presented LM Lopatin, SL Frank NO Lossky, N. Lapshin. Still quite influential empirical psychology (Chelpanov, AP Nechaev, YY Portugal and others). A science direction (Blonskii VM Bekhterev, VA Wagner and others) have already started the implementation of the program for natural-scientific psychology based on the principles of Objectivism close concept of objective psychology, and later - psychoreflexology spondylitis. In the book "The reform of science" Blonsky declares its understanding of the subject of psychology: "Scientific psychology - he writes - is the science of human behavior, that is, his movements as a function of certain variables."

In continuation of these ideas Blonsky published in 1921 "An Essay on Scientific Psychology", which are approved by the principles of behavior, or objective, psychology, became the first major post-revolutionary period in the history of Soviet psychology.

In the "Outline of scientific psychology" Blonsky summarizes views on the subject of scientific psychology and its methods, describes the general features of the behavior of living beings and human dwells on the socio-economic foundations of human behavior on forms instinctive emotional and rational behavior.

In "Reform of science" Blonsky formulated important for Soviet psychology of thought: "Scientific psychology is social psychology" and "Man is homo technicus». Human behavior, he believed, "can not be otherwise, as the social," and "from the genetic point of view, comparing human activities with those of other animals, we can characterize human activity such as the activity of an animal that uses tools."

Soviet psychology in the 1920s. Blonsky found in the works and otherwise use the ideas associated with the introduction of materialism in the study of psychological phenomena, using objective methods, based on the principles of the genetic approach to human behavior and psychology to converge with the life and practical restructuring of society.

In 1924-1928 years. Blonsky has become one of the leading theoreticians of pedology. Integrated approach to development, which is characteristic for pedology, very impressed Blonsky.

Characteristics of children ages was one of the areas of its pedological research. In the 1920s. age periodization generally reduces their biological characteristics (tooth development, endocrine glands, blood composition, and the like).

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