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Psycology » Persons » Psychologists » Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev

Vladimir Bekhterev, the famous Russian neurologist, neurologist, psychologist, psychiatrist, morphology and physiology of the nervous system, was born January 20, 1857 in the village of Sora Elabuzhsky county Vyatka province in the family of a civil servant. In August 1867 he began his studies in the Vyatka gymnasium as well as Bekhterev in his youth decided to devote his life to neuropsychiatry, after seven years of high school in 1873 he entered the Medico-Surgical Academy.

In 1878 he graduated from the Medico-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg, was left for further study at the Department of Psychiatry at the IP Merzheyevskiy. In 1879 Bekhterev was accepted as a full member of the St. Petersburg Society of Psychiatrists.

April 4, 1881 Bekhterev successfully defended his doctoral dissertation in medicine on "Experience of clinical research body temperature in some forms of mental illness" and received the title of privat-docent. In 1884 Bekhterev went on a business trip abroad, where he studied with such famous European psychologists, as Du Bois-Reymond, Wundt, Flechsig and Charcot.

After returning from a trip Bekhterev begins to read a course of lectures on the diagnosis of nervous diseases fifth-year students of Kazan University. Being from 1884 professor at Kazan University in the department of psychiatry, Bekhterev provided teaching of this subject device clinical department in the Kazan district hospital and psychophysiological laboratory at the University, established the Society of Neurologists and psychiatrists who founded the journal "Neurology Bulletin" and released a number of his works, and the work of their students in various departments of neurology and anatomy of the nervous system.

In 1883 Bekhterev was awarded a silver medal Society of Russian Physicians for the article "On forced and violent movements in the destruction of some parts of the central nervous system." In this article, Bekhterev drew attention to the fact that nerve disease can often be accompanied by mental disorders and mental diseases at possible signs of organic lesions of the central nervous system. In the same year he was elected a member of the Italian Society of Psychiatrists.

His most famous article "stiffened his spine curvature as a special form of the disease," was published in the Journal of the capital "Doctor" in 1892 was described by Bekhterev "stiffness of the spine with the curvature of it as a special form of the disease" (now better known as a disease spondylitis, ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid spondylitis), that is a systemic inflammatory disease of connective tissue with lesions of the articular and ligaments of the spine and peripheral joints kresttsovopodvzdoshnogo joint, hip and shoulder joints, and involvement in the process of internal organs. Bekhterev also highlighted diseases such as chorea epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, syphilitic, acute cerebellar ataxia alcoholics. These as well as other scientists first identified the neurological symptoms and a number of original clinical observations are reflected in the two-volume book "Nervous Diseases in individual observations," published in Kazan.

Since 1893 Kazan neurological society has regularly publish its own organ - journal "Neurology Gazette", which went up in 1918 under the editorship of Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev.

In the spring of 1893 Bekhterev received from the chief of the St. Petersburg Military Medical Academy, an invitation to occupy the chair of mental and nervous diseases. Bekhterev arrived in St. Petersburg and began to create Russia's first neurosurgical operating room.

In laboratories, clinics Bekhterev together with its employees and students continued to numerous studies on the morphology and physiology of the nervous system. This allowed him to replenish materials Neuromorphology and to work on the fundamental seven-volume work "Fundamentals of brain function."

In 1894 Bekhterev was appointed a member of the Medical Board of the Ministry of the Interior, and in 1895 he became a member of the Military Medicine at the Academic Council and the Minister of War at the same time a member of the board of the Poorhouse insane.

In November 1900 two volumes of "Pathways of the brain and spinal cord," was nominated by the Russian Academy of Sciences for the award named after academician K.M Baer. In 1902 he published the book "Mind and Life". By the time Bekhterev prepared for publication of the first volume of "Fundamentals of brain functions", which became his main work in neurophysiology. Here were collected and systematized general provisions on the activity of the brain. So, Bekhterev energy theory presented braking whereby the nervous energy in the brain rushes to being in the active state of the center. According spondylitis, this energy would like to come to him for connecting separate territories brain pathways, primarily located near the areas of the brain, which are believed to Bekhterev, there is a "drop in excitability, thus oppression."

In general, for the Study of spondylitis brain morphology made an invaluable contribution to the development of the national psychology His particularly interested in the course of individual beams in the central nervous system, the composition of the white matter of the spinal cord and move the fibers in the gray matter, and at the same time on the basis of his experiments managed to find the physiological significance of the individual parts of the central nervous system (thalamus, pre-door branches of the auditory nerve, the lower and upper olive, colliculus).

Catching brain functions directly, Bekhterev discovered the nucleus and pathways in the brain; created the doctrine of the pathways of the spinal cord and the functional anatomy of the brain; anatomofiziologicheskie installed base balance and spatial orientation found in the cerebral cortex centers of the movement and secretion of the internal organs, etc.

After the completion of the seven volumes of "Fundamentals of brain functions" special attention spondylitis problems began to attract psychology.

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