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Nikolai Bernstein was born in Moscow on October 5, 1896 His father was a famous Russian psychiatrist grandfather Nathan VO - physician, physiologist and philanthropist. In th-nosheskom age showed remarkable ability of the future scientist: music, language, literature, mathematics, engineering and design, etc. It is easy to study foreign languages, playing the piano

Education NA Bernstein at the Moscow University. He first entered the philosophical department, intending to devote himself to philology, but with the outbreak of World War II was transferred to the medical. He got into a crash issue: the war needed doctors and students studied for four years, sent to the front. However, at the end of the university had in 1919, when there was a civil war. NA Bernstein was drafted into the Red Army as a medic.

After demobilization in 1920, he spent some time in the clinic psychiatrist A. In Gilyarovskogo, but soon moved to the Central Institute of Labor, where he headed the laboratory of biomechanics. The main problems to be solved, this laboratory was to study labor movements of humans in vivo in order to facilitate work and improve its effectiveness is still the problem of regulation of human movement solved only one way off the extra degrees of freedom. Bernstein proposed a different solution - unpredictable, evolving situation facing the periphery need to track, anticipating changes using "leading corrections." Thus, he understood sensory correction as an integral part of the motor act, comparable in complexity with an intellectual process. Ie movement, according to the scientist - is not a mechanical execution of the command received from the nervous system, the process of solving the motor task

Such theories NA Bernstein went against the ideas and intentions K. A Gasteva, founder and director of the Institute of Labour intends to construct motion as machine design, giving the man any propulsion. In 1925, Ber-nshteyn quit his job and moved to the Institute of Psychology, where the problem of living movement aroused great interest. In 1926 he published his major work "The overall biomechanics."

NA Bernstein as a man with very diverse interests wrote many works devoted to the problems of biology, mathematics, cybernetics, medicine and music. An excellent pianist, he studied the patterns of musical learning and creativity, devoting a number of scientific works, including "Research on biodynamics piano strike", published in 1930, "Recent data on the structure of the neuro-motor process," issued in 1939, as well as the head of "A technique for violin and piano" in the book "On the repetition of the movement."

Main opponent theories NA Bernstein was IP Pavlov. Their dispute dragged on for a long time, and as an objection Pavlov Bernstein wrote the book "History of the doctrine of nerve impulses." All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine in 1936, was scheduled to debate them full-time. But Pavlov died. When he learned that his opponent will never be able to answer him, Bernstein canceled edition

Studying traffic problems, NA Bernstein paid great attention to clinical medicine He was an excellent neurologist involved in the restoration of movements in various diseases and injuries of the nervous system. These studies fundamentally change the perception of the localization of function in the nervous system, as well as to offer effective techniques restore disturbed functions, that was very important to treat the wounded during the Great Patriotic War.

In 1947 monograph NA Bernstein's "On the construction of movements." Of particular importance in this theory is the construction of the neurophysiological and neurological structure and action skills. Scientists believe that the construction of movements involved in all levels of the brain.

Lower, subcortical level (A) is pure physiology. It provides the presetting of muscle tone, which makes it possible to implement the motor acts of varying complexity. Followed by the highest level of subcortical (B), at certain stages of phylogeny in the animal world, he plays a key role. In humans, it is subordinated to the cortical levels, but its role is very high. According to motor wealth he in some respects superior to the higher levels. This layer is responsible for movements that require precise alignment rhythmically repetitive movements difficult time covering all the limbs and trunk (eg, walking, jogging, swimming, etc.). In the words of Bernstein, this level "takes on the entire inner blister technique complex motion" when another, the upper layer provides an adaptation to the outside world and external objects.

First of cortical levels of building movements (C), according to the author, is of interest not only to psychologists, but also for psychologists. It is composed of the highest division of the basal ganglia and some of the layers of the cerebral cortex (visual field, tactile field, etc.) The most remarkable feature of this level - its objectification. He is freed from the influence of the physiology of his own body, which gravitated over previous levels. He purchased the accuracy and precision in mastering space filled with objects that have the size, shape and weight. P movement have clearly expressed targeted. Therefore, when a painful breakup this level suffer primarily voluntary movements.

The next level of action (D) almost exclusively belongs to man. Here it is possible, according to NA Bernstein, see the beginning of the merger with physiological psychological, their mutual transitions. Leading motive in this level is not even in the object, and in the sense of the action with objects, so sensor field is already more complicated topologically. Level D has a large and high uprazhnyaemostyu automatable. No automated semantic elements and technical characteristics perform actions.

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