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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)

Simone de Beauvoir says that Sartre was working on "criticism" violently vzbadrivaya not only tobacco but also tablets, which adversely affect his already poor eyesight, so that the last seven years of his life he was almost completely blind. In the "Critique" Sartre rejects many of his earlier views on the freedom of the individual. He writes: "Let no one interprets that spirit in me, that man is free in all situations ... I want to say quite the opposite, namely, that all men are slaves because of their experience of life takes place in the field of practice-inertia and to the extent in which this region is from the outset due to their shortcomings. "

The term "practical-inert" associated with that part of life which is defined earlier free actions and represents the interaction or, more precisely, the dialectic of individual practices and hereditary burden of historical fact, that "criticism" is the predominant interest Sartre.

There is a general view that Sartre in this work did not succeed either in sociology or anthropology, or philosophy. However, it does, as in his other works, Sartre raises questions that have the deepest interest, and are of great importance.

1960 - Apogee popularity Sartre, in 1964 the Swedish Academy awarded him the Nobel Prize for literature. Again Sartre astonished audience: he refused to accept the award (the amount was quite large - twenty-six million francs), which caused the most divergent responses. And he explained simply not accepted, because it has a political meaning and a well-defined - including in the bourgeois elite person who has always opposed the bourgeoisie: "If we had a government of the Popular Front, I would have gladly accepted the award from him", and so that means the return of "prodigal son" in the ranks of the bourgeoisie.

In September - October 1965, Sartre spoke in Tokyo and Kyoto with a series of lectures, "In Defense Intellectuals", which contrasted their "technicians of practical knowledge." Original same intellectual - "keeper of the fundamental objectives (emancipation, universalization, humanization of man.). He becomes the guardian of democracy ... keeping function of true freedom ... What Hegel called the unhappy consciousness, and is characteristic of the intellectual. " This is a continuation of thought, still deployed in the "What is Literature", in which he wrote that the purpose of the writer - infecting society "bad conscience."

With age, Sartre became irreconcilable. In the second half of the 1960s, the Vietnam War broke out with the active participation of the United States. Sartre became chairman of the "public tribunal Russell," whose purpose was to investigate the facts of the genocide in Vietnam.

"In 1945 in Nuremberg for the first time, the notion of political crimes. Our tribunal does not offer anything else, how to apply to capitalist imperialism by its own laws. Legal arsenal is not limited to the Nuremberg laws, there is still the Kellogg-Briand Pact, the Geneva Convention and other international relations. "

Came in 1968, which imposed opredelyayushy imprint for life Sartre. In May, serious student unrest broke out in Paris, and 63-year-old philosopher decided that the hour of the overthrow of the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie." Particularly inspiring slogan rebellious students - "Imagination to power!", Because imagination, according to Sartre, - the most characteristic and the most precious feature of human reality. He started his philosophical work with the phenomenology of the imagination, a sketch of which was published in 1936, and it is finished exploring the world of imagination Flobepa. But voiced slogans cause was not helped de Gaulle's government rather quickly restored order and Sartre finally waved on the communists, accusing them that they "are afraid of the revolution."

In the spring of 1970, Sartre became editor in chief of the Maoist newspaper "People's case" in order to, as he said, to some extent to protect his authority this edition of police harassment and persecution for such grounds were. This can be seen even in the interview that Sartre gave in 1972 - an interview, pointedly entitled "I believe in the illegality."

"Cultural Revolution" he examines in the context of inner-party struggle in China and has no illusions about the foreign policy of this country. He is inclined to consider the cultural revolution a serious matter and needed, in particular as a cure for the elitist concept of intellectual activity.

Still difficult to understand the reasons for his acute political extremism in the last ten years of his life. Of course, it all unfolded against the backdrop of waning creative powers. After "Being and Nothingness" he failed to complete any of the fundamental theoretical works conceived. Remained in manuscript announced at the end of the ontological work treatise on ethics, has not turned out the second volume of "Critics" finally did not appear final - the fourth - including studies of Flaubert, which should have been collected all the threads of the tortuous and almost pathologically extended analysis.

Sartre saw in groups of extremist youth "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" and "immediate direct democracy" as opposed to a representative that he did not put in a penny.

To reverse side of extremist youth associations, he was strangely insensitive, to the point that he was trying to take protection guidelines terrorist underground "Red Army" (though while condemning their practice). So he tried to take part in the fate of a group Baader-Meinhof gang, which caused an uproar in Germany.

In the presidential election in 1974, he took the position of "revolutionary non-participation." On this occasion, Simone de Beauvoir said in an interview: "The fact that Jean-Paul Sartre would not vote for me is his desire to stay out of institutions that deserves respect." Now the main form of his philosophical and journalistic activities become interviews and taped conversations (often his companion was his personal secretary, a former leader of "proletarian Left" Benny Levy).

On his seventieth birthday M.

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