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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)

French writer, philosopher and journalist, head of French existentialism. Main topics of artistic works: the loneliness, the search of absolute freedom, the absurdity of existence. In 1964, Sartre was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Major philosophical work: "Imagination" (1936), "Design theory of emotion" (1939), "Imaginary" (1940), "Being and Nothingness" (1943), "Existentialism - a Humanism" (1946 ), "Situation" (1947-1964), "Problems of method" (1947), "Critique of Dialectical Reason" (1960). Trilogy "Roads to Freedom" is considered a classic work of literature of the XX century.

About his childhood, Jean-Paul Sartre said in an autobiographical novel "Words" (1963). He was born June 21, 1905 in Paris. His father, a naval officer, died when the boy was just over a year, and Jean-Paul raised by his mother.

"When I was seven or eight years, I lived with a widowed mother with her grandparents. My grandmother was a Catholic, and grandfather - a Protestant. At the table, each of them made fun of another religion. Everything was good-natured family tradition. But the child innocently judge: of this I concluded that both religion is worthless. "

Mother and son were so attached to each other that even slept in the same room. "I confided to her all" - he wrote later Sartre. Grandma thought Jean-Paul genius, his mother - the future great writer. Sartre himself was content simply position prodigy. However, becoming a young man, he felt "a liar", looking at the world only through the eyes of strangers.

For fifteen years, Jean-Paul has firmly learned that relationships between people are somehow connected with violence. Historical events have only strengthened the teenager in this opinion. In 1959 Sartre recalled: "We knew - we, the people of my age - between childhood and adolescence two periods of sacred violence. In 1914 - the war: we were told that it is true and that God is for us. In 1917 - Russian Revolution. Over time, we have little eyes were opened, and in 1919 we hope to put it ... We were soaked violence of our fathers ... When I went to a normal school, no one would dare to say that it is necessary to renounce violence. We were worried before, just as his guide and limit ... This problem still exists for us: we never get out beyond it. "

Sartre devoured many books: Library Form student elite Ecole Normale Superieure contained about three hundred titles per year. Accompanied by teaching mental work, so intense that one of his classmates said - "Sartre thinks all the time, except when sleeping, stop!" For all that he is not shied away from the joys of life and the usual student fun. His wife, Simone de Beauvoir later commented: "He has a pleasant voice and a large repertoire, the annual celebration of the school, he acts as a revue G. Lanson, director of the school's standard textbook on the history of French literature, singing to the tune of his own party" Beautiful Helen "Offenbach, with great success. American jazz, Negro "spirichuele" - his passion. "

At the same time he was preparing a great philosophical work, which is not separated from the philosophy of literature, because "love Stendhal no less than Spinoza." Excerpts from this work were published "Literary News". After graduating from the Normal School, Sartre soon began to teach philosophy at a high school in Le Havre.

In 1929, he met Simone Beauvoir, extraordinary girl. Beauvoir decided for themselves that affect women - boredom, while she wanted to try everything in the world: sex and the independence and professional joy. Discarding all the conventions, she took on the role of the godmother of modern feminism.

He was short, paunchy, blind in one eye. It features an elegant, dressed either in bright silks, or all black. However, Beauvoir was delighted with the generosity and humor with which Sartre shared his knowledge and appreciated his intellect.

It soon became clear that they tend to the same purpose debunk bourgeois values ​​and a new philosophy, which was based to authenticity. Beauvoir was pedantic philosopher Sartre and forced to operate with irrefutable arguments. All his life he relied on its editorial flair and a sharp mind. They entered into a contract which, for many modern couples became a role model: to be together, while remaining free. Marriage and being faithful excluded. Sartre is acceptable because this sexy anarchist could not resist the charms of attractive young girls and silly. Instead they have taken a vow of monogamy tell each other "everything" to be "frank". However, they were almost always together, and if the distance separating them, they wrote to each other. Called rumors the couple was delighted with pop culture. Sartre loved movies, and Beauvoir slummock thick literary journals. Sartre in a black shirt, a turban Beauvoir were the epitome of bohemian life in postwar Paris ...

In 1933-1934 years, Sartre was a scholar of the French Institute in Berlin, where he immersed himself in the world of Husserl's phenomenology, Heidegger met publications. Since Sartre became a devotee of phenomenology, through which he built his building philosophy.

In the last pre-war years were published in his book "Imagination" (1936), "Imaginary" (1939), "Design theory of emotion" (1940). Occurs to him literary fame. Was finally published his novel "Nausea" (1938), was originally rejected by the publishing house "Gallimard," and a book of short stories "The Wall" (1939).

Hitler's attack on Poland started a new world war. Sartre was mobilized and carried meteorological service in one of the army units. Long lull in the French-German front (so-called "phony war") allowed him to make diary entries, which are already clearly outlines the contours of a large philosophical treatise.

In May 1940, a blow tank armada French front was broken and a half months the Third Republic had ceased to exist, as Sartre, along with millions of compatriots was in a POW camp.

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