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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Erich Fromm (1900-1980)

Schweitzer, E. Bloch, I. Illich Yugoslav Praxis group of philosophers, political Worker E. Eppler, as well as numerous representatives of religious and other radical humanist unions in Europe and America.

World War II ended. But Fromm never returned to Germany. His research interests focus on the justification of the "new humanism" and on the study of the relationship between man and society. He settled on the seafront in Guernavako (Mexico), a professor of psychoanalysis at the National University, collaborated with progressive Latin American scientists periodically went to lecture in the United States. Here he married a "charming Annis," which was his happiness for many years. The project Annis they built their own house on the beach, along studied Spanish and traveled together. In the mid-1970s they ever left Mexico and moved to Switzerland, where he remained until his death.

1950 notable special attention to social theory and social policy issues. Among the works of these years - lecture "Psychoanalysis and Religion", an analysis of the epic - "Fairy tales, myths and dreams" (1951), a philosophical work "Healthy Society" (1956).

He participated in political activities in the development program of the Social Democratic Federation (SDF), which took a little bit until he was sure that the Social Democracy strongly "has swung."

In the early 1960's, that is, long before any of the politicians spoke about the possibility of detente in international relations, in particular between the two superpowers - the USSR and the USA, Fromm wrote about the necessity of "healthy rational thinking for the sake of security throughout the world. " In the autumn of 1962, Fromm came to Moscow, taking part as an observer in the Conference on Disarmament.

Thinker organized a conference on humanism, where humanists different countries and peoples were able to formulate the main goal of humanistic socialism: the creation of conditions for self-free, intelligent and loving person. Erich Fromm believed that humanistic socialism is incompatible with the bureaucratic system, with consumerism, materialism and lack of spirituality. From this platform, together with Erich Fromm made Bloch and philosophers Bertrand Russell, Herbert Marcuse and I. Fetcher and many others ..

In 1960, Fromm wrote a scientific autobiography, entitled "On the other side of illusions" (1962), as well as the most important "works of his soul" - "Psychoanalysis and Zen Buddhism" (1960) and "Soul Man", (1964). In the late 1960s - early 1970s, he focuses mainly on the study of the roots and types of human aggression. The result of 5 years of work were two works: "Revolution of Hope" (1968) and "The Anatomy of human destructiveness" (1973).

In the last analysis, based on the character of Hitler, Himmler, Stalin gives a comprehensive study of various personal and social factors that bring people in sadistic and destructive tendencies.

In "Forgotten Language" analyzes the symbolism in dreams, fairy tales and myths, and critiqued dream theory of Freud and Jung as one-sided. In this work he sets out the view that symbolic language is a "universal language by which the human race develops."

Fromm popularity in Europe has reached its climax after the publication of his last major book, "To Have or to Be?" (1976).

The theme of love to man was at the center frommovskoy social and philosophical concepts, and the book "The Art of Love" (1956) became a bestseller for many years, has been translated into 25 languages, including Chinese, Korean, Indonesian, Icelandic. English book has sold more copies (in an amount of 5 million copies.).

What is the ratio of Erich Fromm to the problem of love? In the early 1920s, Fromm formulated distinction between maternal and paternal love for the child, which is that a mother loves her children, regardless of their merit, while his father loves children for obedience and that detects them their own features.

The ability to love is not given to everyone - it is a rare gift and the most valuable of all arts. Fromm believes that this gift reveals to man the path to freedom, that is the goal of existence.

Love - is the union of one man to another while maintaining their identity. Love - is action, not rest, activity, and not perception. Love - it means giving, not taking. Man gives to another what seems to him the most valuable - part of his life, feelings, knowledge, experience. And he does it not in order to get something in return: the very "surrendering" is exquisite pleasure. Love (in all its forms) is based on elements such as caring, responsibility, respect and knowledge.

Love, by Fromm - is active comprehension other creatures, such knowledge in which there is a kind merging with it. In love, in the dedication of the person opens and finds himself, and with him - another person, "I understand the man." According to Fromm, love due to certain personal gift. A great mistake to believe that the power of love to one person is proved indifference to everything else. Love is a comprehensive spiritual activity. If I truly love someone, I love the whole world, I love life.

Based on my experience, Fromm concludes that really love each other spouse - is an exception. In marriage is destroyed even the illusion of love (love). And it happens just at the moment when a person feels "owner" miracle of love birds. When partners, marriage contract, lose the need to "conquer" be interesting, activities, inventive, ie direct their efforts to ensure that "to be" (express themselves brighter, more to give to another, to provoke reaction.) By the loss of love (love) leads often mistaken idea that love can be enjoyed.

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