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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Martin Heidegger (1889-1978)

"Epistemological studies related mainly to the theory of historical knowledge - he writes - have done for me problematic and unacceptable system of Catholicism, but not Christianity and metaphysics, which now have for me a whole new meaning" ;.

At the beginning of 1922 due to the request of thirty-three Husserl, Heidegger became extraordinary professor of the University of Marburg. Income was consolidated. But the town itself, its air, lean library - all annoying Heidegger. He would willingly settled in Heidelberg, in which it is now attracting the friendship with Professor Karl Jaspers. It inspired philosophical search makes Heidegger. Rescues and hut in Todtnauberg, near their homeland - the mountain air, the woodwork and, most importantly, inspired the creation of the book "Being and Time", which was destined to become one of the classics of the XX century. Heidegger lectures at the University are very popular among students. But with colleagues - except for the famous Protestant theologian Rudolf Bultmann - there is no understanding. In the same 1925, when it is written, "Being and Time", again raises the question about the position of full professor for Heidegger.

Again, competition ... It lasts right up to 1927, when obtained, finally appointed professor wrong and need to Heidegger, because the University of Freiburg call him to myself: make room Husserl, who in 68 years has resigned. In Heidegger strengthened hidden, shed only letters, anger against the university bosses and orders - and then it is not yet time will break out. Places in Marburg and Freiburg again obtained mainly through Husserl.

However, in 1927 after the publication of "Being and Time" between Husserl and Heidegger begins cooling. Heidegger presented the book is not just uncommon, and outstanding, paves a new path. This path starts from the phenomenological and especially Husserl, roads, but was original, unique Heidegger. Such "infidelity" great teacher pupil could not bear.

"Being and Time" - is central, the brightest star around which to arrange the other works. In particular, texts Marburg lectures.

This book is the philosopher of the XX century, though its origins precisely in the 1920s, too, in its own way is reflected in the style and content of the product. Heidegger fails to see is not the first nor the last threat hanging over the human being and through it over being at all.

Frankfurt philosopher returns almost triumphantly. During the post vacated by Husserl, no need to fight: in the eyes of the public philosophy, Heidegger, author of "Being and Time" - natural successor "throne" Laurelled founder of phenomenology. July 24, 1929, Heidegger reads his professorial speech - a lecture on "What is Metaphysics?"

In 1933, Heidegger is among the relatively few famous people who collaborate with the Nazis. He finds his ideological aspirations of something consonant own mindsets. Immersed in his thoughts and activities, Heidegger does not have time, and has no particular desire to grasp the meaning of "Mein Kampf" or the writings of Hitler fascist "theorists". Nazi student unions promise to update and greatness of Germany. Heidegger, who always loved the students know and take into account their mood (and now his own son became a student). Professor carries wave of student "national animation", and gradually he gets to network Nazi organizations University of Freiburg.

Heidegger favors deep - in his understanding of a truly revolutionary - the reform of the German universities. He interesting reform ideas, but bet he does on the Nazi Party and its adherents in the German university structure.

April 21, 1933, Heidegger was elected rector of the University of Freiburg. Ten days later, he must fulfill a crucial point of the electoral agreement with the Nazis. May 1, 1933, the newly established Labour Day, Martin Heidegger officially joins the National Socialist Workers Party of Adolf Hitler.

Heidegger full combat plans. May 27 University is going to listen to "speech from the throne" newfound rector and Parteigenosse. It is called "assertiveness German universities." But it falls exactly on university freedoms and rights, and in a manner demagogic.

At the end of November 1933 the rector, Heidegger reads the report "University in the National Socialist state" in which there are many theses able to please the Nazi leadership. "What would the university in the new state? New student - it is no longer an academic citizen. It goes through labor service is SA or SS, playing sports. Education is now called the service through knowledge. And soon it all merges into a joyful unity. "

Taking the rectorship, Heidegger must take steps which the Nazi party expects from him as Parteigenosse, received her support. The fore the so-called Jewish question. Among friends, teachers, colleagues and students of Heidegger there are Jews. Heidegger, tying collaboration with the Nazis, can not be unaware that their ideology heavily involved on racism and anti-Semitism. There is evidence of rejection Heidegger biologically justifying racism. Anyway, if Heidegger initially conceived and out of the action dictated by nationalism and anti-Semitism of Hitler's official policy, then he has to make sure, however difficult to implement such a plan. He tries to stay away.

In the years 1933-1934 clarify much of that before might have seemed incomprehensible. If Heidegger and nurtures hopes for some autonomy in the conduct of university reform, in its formative philosophical influence, very soon his hopes crumble. His rivals are doing everything to prevent the star Haydegerra ascend the sky official Nazi ideology. The struggle for power in the Nazi philosophy helps to Heidegger, who has already burdened by dependence on the National Socialist policy, go into the shadows.

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