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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Martin Heidegger (1889-1978)

German philosopher, one of the founders of German existentialism. Developed the theory of being ("fundamental ontology"), based on the opposition of true existence (existence) and the world of everyday life, everyday life, understanding the meaning of being connected, according to Heidegger, with an awareness of the frailty of human existence ("Being and Time", 1927). Theme of the later Heidegger - the origin of "metaphysical" way of thinking, the way to search for "the truth of Being." Other works: "Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics" (1929), "What is Metaphysics?" (1930), "Introduction to Metaphysics" (1935), "Plato's doctrine of truth" (1942), "False trails "(1950)," Nietzsche "(1961, 2 volumes), etc.

Martin Heidegger was born September 26, 1889 in Meskirhe, a small provincial town of Upper Swabia, situated in a valley between the Danube and Lake Constance. Heidegger was brought up in a family of modest craftsman. His father, Friedrich Heidegger engaged cooperage craft, and also served as clerk of the church of St. Martin. Mother, Johann Kempf, came from a peasant family, who owned a small plot of land.

Family income, sufficient for a modest and economical life of parents and three children, however, do not allow his sons a good education. Came to help the church. Once in 1903, Martin graduated in Meskirhe real school, it is the means of the church Meskirha he was sent to a Catholic humanitarian Konstanz school - boarding.

In Constanta on Heidegger's education was greatly influenced by Roman Catholic theologian, later Archbishop Dr. Conrad Greber. Of course, pastors and theologians, providing protection, expected to replenish their ranks.

From Grebera Martin gets to explore thesis Fr. Brentano, "The diversity of values ​​things according to Aristotle" (1862). This work is the initial impetus for deeper and inspired study of ancient Greek philosophy.

After graduating from high school the first stage of Constance in 1906, Martin continued his studies in Freiburg, also in prestigious Catholic high schools the following steps. Received a high-school education, Heidegger enters the University of Freiburg, in the theological faculty which in 1909 and began his student life. His theological teachers Martin obliged development Catholic philosophical tradition, especially works of Thomas Aquinas and Suarez.

By the time of graduation (1915) in the spiritual development of Heidegger's planned break with Catholic influence. "Former residents" of Catholic schools is given a very hard time. Heidegger remains gratitude and appreciation to their teachers, but thank their peculiar: "Without this initial theological education I'd never embarked on the path of thinking."

Judging by student publications Heidegger ultraconservative Catholic weekly (and this brief notes or poems dedicated church events at the time), in 1910-1911 he was an enthusiastic student of Catholic theologians. The same was said of his work and placed in a respectable academic journal German Catholic unions. It is basically a laudatory review of the works of the venerable official theologians. But also a talented student is immersed in the study of philosophical literature. And it works so selflessly Heidegger that he (due to nervous exhaustion caused by unfavorable nature of asthma, cardiac changes) in the winter semester of 1910-1911 years have to interrupt their studies for the treatment of first and then stay home. Deteriorating health Heidegger scholar worried churchmen. Martin, trying to rectify the situation, torturing yourself and exercise for life earns a heart ailment.

As a result, the financial support of the clergy ceased. Martin passes through the first in my life existential crisis, which he rightly links to the origin of the "shallow environment." Then they will repeatedly return to the topic of the "little man" encroached on the clue "great mystery." For example, in the works devoted to the poetry of Hölderlin. Experienced the bitterness of helplessness and humiliation Heidegger will carry through life. After refusing to break with the Catholic scholarship is still not happening. Heidegger, however, obliged to pass exams for 1911-1912 academic year to confirm their right to study at university - now is not theology, mathematics and natural sciences.

Since 1912, he received a government scholarship. Patron Heidegger, however, is once again becoming a theologian - this time Professor Josef Sauer, professor of Art History and related to the history of Christianity archeology.

Having been engaged in mathematics, logic, chemistry, physics (in particular, the theory of relativity), Heidegger perceives itself to new areas of knowledge. It immediately captures the problem of time. He listens to lectures and philosophers - in particular, Heinrich Rickert. He wants to write a paper on the logical essence of the concept of number, but he was forced in exchange for financial support requiring ideological obedience to accept the offer Catholics. Allocate money to him at the time a lot (1000 marks a year), but also a strict condition: "Develop the teachings of St. Thomas Aquinas and stay within theology."

In 1915 Heidegger enrolled lecturer in the philosophy department. Already a year was the first world war. Caused for military service, Heidegger exposed thorough examination and eventually released because of neurasthenia and heart disease. However, according to martial law he had to deal censoring letters. The matter is extremely unpleasant, but the refusal could not be considered. However, the front was far avoided the war party. Heidegger entirely absorbed in his own worries and problems. And most importantly, he sought his own way in philosophy.

Heidegger with the youth seized the writings of Nietzsche, Dostoevsky, Rilke, Trakl.

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